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CASE STUDY
Effects of turmeric on Alzheimer's disease with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia
Nozomi Hishikawa, Yoriko Takahashi, Yoshinobu Amakusa, Yuhei Tanno, Yoshitake Tuji, Hisayoshi Niwa, Nobuyuki Murakami, UK Krishna
October-December 2012, 33(4):499-504
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.110524  PMID:23723666
We describe here three patients with the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) whose behavioral symptoms were improved remarkably as a result of the turmeric treatment, which is the traditional Indian medicine. Their cognitive decline and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) were very severe. All three patients exhibited irritability, agitation, anxiety, and apathy, two patients suffer from urinary incontinence and wonderings. They were prescribed turmeric powder capsules and started recovering from these symptoms without any adverse reaction in the clinical symptom and laboratory data. After 12 weeks of the treatment, total score of the Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory-brief questionnaire decreased significantly in both acuity of symptoms and burden of caregivers. In one case, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was up five points, from 12/30 to 17/30. In the other two cases, no significant change was seen in the MMSE; however, they came to recognize their family within 1 year treatment. All cases have been taking turmeric for more than 1 year, re-exacerbation of BPSD was not seen. The present cases suggest a significant improvement of the behavioral symptoms in the AD with the turmeric treatment, leading to probable benefit of the use of turmeric in individuals with the AD with BPSD.
  49 8,539 1,827
REVIEW ARTICLES
Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's Honey - A review
E. R. H. S. S Ediriweera, N. Y. S Premarathna
April-June 2012, 33(2):178-182
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.105233  PMID:23559786
Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. There are many types of bee's honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and 'Makshika' is considered medicinally the best. According to modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apis mellifera (Family: Apidae). In Sri Lanka, the predominant honey-maker bee is Apis cerana. The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee's honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, details of formation, constitution, properties, and method of extraction and the usages of bee's honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians of Western and Southern provinces, villagers of 'Kalahe' in Galle district of Sri Lanka and from few search engines. Fresh bee's honey is used in treatment of eye diseases, throat infections, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, piles, eczema, healing of wounds, ulcers and used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen, mental health and used in cosmetic purposes. Old bee's honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and in preserving meat and fruits. Highly popular in cosmetic treatment, bee's honey is used in preparing facial washes, skin moisturizers, hair conditioners and in treatment of pimples. Bee's honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses.
  29 20,563 2,628
CLINICAL RESEARCH
A pilot study on Ayurvedic management of oral submucous fibrosis
Kundan R Patel, Manjusha Rajagopala, Dharmendrasinh B Vaghela, Ashok Shah
January-March 2015, 36(1):34-40
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.169018  PMID:26730136
Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic debilitating disease and a well-recognized potentially premalignant condition of the oral cavity. Various medical and surgical treatment modalities have been used in modern science, but results are not satisfactory owing to recurrence, adverse effects, and sometimes worsening the condition. On analyzing the disease condition with Ayurvedic approach, it seems to be nearer to Vata-Pitta dominant chronic Sarvasara Mukharoga and needs to be treated at local as well as systemic level. Aim: To evaluate the effect of proposed Ayurvedic treatment protocol in the patients of OSMF. Materials and Methods: It was an open-label nonrandomized clinical trial with black box design comprising of holistic Ayurvedic approach in which 22 patients of OSMF completed the treatment. In all of them after Koshthashuddhi (mild purgation) and Shodhana Nasya (errhine therapy); Pratisarana (external application) with Madhupippalyadi Yoga, Kavala (gargling) with Ksheerabala Taila and internally Rasayana Yoga were given for 2 months and followed for 1 month. Results: It revealed statistically highly significant relief in almost all signs and symptoms as well in inter incisal distance improvement. Furthermore, sustained relief was found in follow-up. Conclusion: Ayurvedic treatment protocol is effective in the management of OSMF.
  28 14,456 882
CLINICAL RESEARCHES
Low resource screening method of pre-cancerous lesions and its reversal by Triphala in teen-age Indian population
Anshula Deshpande, Shobha Tandon, Neeraj Deshpande
April-June 2014, 35(2):160-167
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.146233  PMID:25558161
Background: Cancer screening is the main weapon for early detection at a pre-invasive or premalignant stage. It has been reported that over 12 million people use some form of tobacco, which is one of the high risk factors and has hence become an alarming world-wide problem. Aim: To evaluate the effective diagnostic screening of disease in its early stage by inexpensive method and also to evaluate the effect of indigenous mouthrinse on reversal of pre-cancerous lesions. Materials and Methods: The screening for teenagers belonging to low socio-economic status was carried out. Suspected subjects were evaluated for the reversal of the lesions by use of Ayurvedic preparation as a mouthwash. From 13 to19 years working-child population of North India was selected for the study. Screening was performed by new method-visual inspection with acetic acid. The positive subjects were further investigated by pap smear and biopsy was done as a confirmatory histopathological report. In second phase, the subjects showing positive lesions were advised indigenous anti-cancer mouth rinse and its effect was evaluated after 6 month and 9 month of prescribing the rinse. Results: The total 1095 children were screened (831 boys and 264 girls). Out of total 34 teenager boys were diagnosed, as acetowhite positive lesion. All the acetowhite positive lesions were found exclusively in males. Histological findings after 9 month use of Triphala mouth rinse revealed no changes in cells in 23 (85.2%), hyperkeratinization in 2 (7.4%), hyperkeratinization and spongiosis was evident in 1 (3.7%), mild pleomorphism in 1 (3.7%) patient. Comparative evaluation from 0-9 month showed statistically highly significant test (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Use of different forms of tobacco and betel nut showed convincing relationship between developments of oral pre-cancerous lesions. Triphala was found to have great potential for reversal of these lesions.
  27 3,366 440
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation
Hari Sharma, Xiaoying Zhang, Chandradhar Dwivedi
April-June 2010, 31(2):134-140
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.72361  PMID:22131700
Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of medicated ghee decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in psoriasis patients. A study on a rural population in India revealed a significantly lower prevalence of coronary heart disease in men who consumed higher amounts of ghee. Research on Maharishi Amrit Kalash-4 (MAK-4), an Ayurvedic herbal mixture containing ghee, showed no effect on levels of serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL, or triglycerides in hyperlipidemic patients who ingested MAK-4 for 18 weeks. MAK-4 inhibited the oxidation of LDL in these patients. The data available in the literature do not support a conclusion of harmful effects of the moderate consumption of ghee in the general population. Factors that may be involved in the rise of CAD in Asian Indians include the increased use of vanaspati (vegetable ghee) which contains 40% trans fatty acids, psychosocial stress, insulin resistance, and altered dietary patterns. Research findings in the literature support the beneficial effects of ghee outlined in the ancient Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic use of ghee for thousands of years in the Ayurvedic system of medicine.
  26 13,975 2,393
REVIEW ARTICLES
Natural medicaments in dentistry
Dakshita J Sinha, Ashish A Sinha
April-June 2014, 35(2):113-118
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.146198  PMID:25558153
The major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Cleaning, shaping, and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load to some extent, but some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection. Taking into consideration the ineffectiveness, potential side-effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. Phytomedicine has been used in dentistry as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative and also as endodontic irrigant. Herbal preparations can be derived from the root, leaves, seeds, stem, and flowers. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for natural medicaments featured 1480 articles and in dentistry 173 articles. A forward search was undertaken on the selected articles and author names. This review focuses on various natural drugs and products as well as their therapeutic applications when used as phytomedicine in dentistry.
  22 5,809 1,122
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Protective effect of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies
Debabrata Das, SK Agarwal, HM Chandola
April-June 2011, 32(2):196-199
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92579  PMID:22408302
One of the very common side effects of Radiation/Chemotherapy especially of the head and neck malignancies is mucositis. Cancer therapy or the cancer itself may cause changes in the body chemistry that results in loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and very common mucositis which makes eating difficult. Loss of appetite is followed by an undesirable loss of weight due to insufficient amount of calories every day which can lead to loss of muscle mass and strength and other complications by causing interruptions of medical therapy, impeding effective cancer therapy. Mucositis cause decreased immunity and quality of life as well as poor tolerance to surgery and altered efficacy of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. The present study is designed with the objective to minimize the radiation induced mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, change in voice etc. with an Ayurvedic preparation Yashtimadhu Ghrita (processed ghee). Total 75 patients were randomly divided into four groups and drugs were administered: Group A with local application of Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity for few minutes prior to radiotherapy along with oral intake of Yashtimadhu Ghrita; Group B with only local application of the Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity; Group C patients administered with only local application of honey in the oral cavity; Group D on conventional modern medication controlled group. All these patients under four groups had received Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for maximum duration of 7 weeks. Mucositis and Skin reactions were observed in 100% of patients with varying degree. The intensity of Radiation and Chemotherapy induced mucositis was reduced to a great extent by the trial drug. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) can be used effectively in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis post radiation and chemotheraphy in patients of cancer, especially of the head and neck region. It proves beneficial in two ways: (i) there were no interruptions in the treatment, and (ii) food intake was not severely affected leading to maintenance of nutritional status of the patients.
  20 6,116 1,083
REVIEW ARTICLES
Some basic aspects of statistical methods and sample size determination in health science research
VS Binu, Shreemathi S Mayya, Murali Dhar
April-June 2014, 35(2):119-123
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.146202  PMID:25558154
A health science researcher may sometimes wonder "why statistical methods are so important in research?" Simple answer is that, statistical methods are used throughout a study that includes planning, designing, collecting data, analyzing and drawing meaningful interpretation and report the findings. Hence, it is important that a researcher knows the concepts of at least basic statistical methods used at various stages of a research study. This helps the researcher in the conduct of an appropriately well-designed study leading to valid and reliable results that can be generalized to the population. A well-designed study possesses fewer biases, which intern gives precise, valid and reliable results. There are many statistical methods and tests that are used at various stages of a research. In this communication, we discuss the overall importance of statistical considerations in medical research with the main emphasis on estimating minimum sample size for different study objectives.
  20 6,812 1,419
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of Tinospora Cordifolia Miers.)
Biswajyoti Patgiri, Bharti L Umretia, Pradip U Vaishnav, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati, Vinay J Shukla, B Ravishankar
January-March 2014, 35(1):108-110
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.141958  PMID:25364210
Background: Guduchi Ghana is one of the unique Ayuvedic classical preparation which is prepared from aqueous of extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem. It is one of the frequently used drugs to treat the Madhumeha, Pandu, Kamala, Amlapitta, Grahani, Kustha, Jirna Jwara and Viswamjwara, Trishna, Shool, Yakritavikara, etc. Looking to these indications, in market most of the Pharma industries prepared Guduchi Ghana by applying the various extraction process. Aim: To evaluate comparative anti-inflammatory activity of classically prepared and market sample of Guduchi Ghana. Materials and Methods: Both samples were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Animals were divided in three groups, having six animals in each. Group A received test drug, Group B received market sample at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally, while Group C (control group) received tap water. Results: Reduction in edema was observed in Group A and B at 3 h interval by 33.06% and 11.71% respectively. Group A showed significant effects (P < 0.05) in comparison to control group. Conclusion: These experimental results have shown anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana.
  20 5,666 747
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pharmacological attribute of Aloe vera: Revalidation through experimental and clinical studies
Vinay K Gupta, Seema Malhotra
April-June 2012, 33(2):193-196
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.105237  PMID:23559789
Aloe vera has long been used as a traditional medicine for inducing wound healing. It is a natural product that now a days is used in cosmetic industry. Benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves though there are various indications for its use. Biological activities include promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immunomodulatory. Gingival fibroblasts play an important role in oral wound healing. Double blind-controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy in oral health.
  19 11,798 1,756
PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY
In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn.
Nayan R Bhalodia, Pankaj B Nariya, RN Acharya, VJ Shukla
April-June 2013, 34(2):209-214
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.119684  PMID:24250133
The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.
  17 5,901 1,248
CLINICAL RESEARCH
Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults
Bakhtiar Choudhary, A Shetty, Deepak G Langade
January-March 2015, 36(1):63-68
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.169002  PMID:26730141
Introduction: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. Aims: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Materials and Methods: Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. Results: There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.
  15 8,768 1,292
REVIEW ARTICLES
A progressive review of Sandhana kalpana (Biomedical fermentation): An advanced innovative dosage form of Ayurveda
Anand Chaudhary, Neetu Singh, Madhuri Dalvi, Asmita Wele
July-September 2011, 32(3):408-417
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.93925  PMID:22529661
Sandhana kalpana (biomedical fermented formulations) are one of the best dosage forms of Ayurveda in practice since thousands of years. In order to prepare these medicaments, certain sets of conditions are prearranged, which lead to fermentation. Thus, products bequeath with self-generated ethyl alcohol, which potentiate these preparations (Asava-Arishta), pharmaceutically and therapeutically. Commonly, medicinal and commercial components of these formulations are prompting many researchers to contribute in manufacturing, quality control, safety, and efficacy of these formulations. To cope up with this, literature related to Asava-Arishta has been surveyed from the Vedic period to recent publications of Government of India, ie, Ayurvedic Formulary of India, and presented briefly here. In this review paper, we have discussed pioneering facts such as nature and amount of carbohydrate, type of containers, optimum temperature, variety and relevance of initiator of fermentation, manufacturing, regulatory rules, and business aspects of Asava-Arishta. After going through this basic information, any academician or researcher may show a way to further strengthen this dosage form.
  15 10,110 1,334
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY
An in-vitro evaluation of the efficacy of garlic extract as an antimicrobial agent on periodontal pathogens: A microbiological study
Sunaina Shetty, Biju Thomas, Veena Shetty, Rahul Bhandary, Raghavendra M Shetty
October-December 2013, 34(4):445-451
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127732  PMID:24695825
With the rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, there is considerable interest in the development of other classes of antimicrobials for the control of infection. Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) has been used as medicine since ancient times and has long been known to have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. This study was undertaken to assess the inhibitory effect of garlic on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, to assess the time-kill curve of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, and to determine the antiproteolytic activity of garlic on P. gingivalis. Ethanolic garlic extract (EGE) and aqueous garlic extract (AGE) were prepared and the inhibitory effects of these extracts for two periodontal pathogens (P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans) were tested. Antiproteolytic activity on protease of P. gingivalis was determined. 25 microliter (μl), 50 μl, and 75 μl of AGE showed 16 mm, 20 mm, and 25 mm zone of inhibition, respectively, on P. gingivalis. The AGE showed greater bacteriostatic activity against the P. gingivalis with minimum inhibitory concentration determined at 16.6 μl/ml. The time-kill assay of AGE and EGE were compared for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. AGE showed better antiproteolytic activity on total protease of P. gingivalis compared to the EGE. Thus, the study concludes the antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against periodontal pathogens, P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its action against P. gingivalis includes inhibition of total protease activity, and this raises the possibility that garlic may have therapeutic use for periodontitis and possibly other oral infections.
  14 4,326 957
REVIEW ARTICLES
A phytopharmacological review on an important medicinal plant - Amorphophallus paeoniifolius
Yadu Nandan Dey, Sarada Ota, N Srikanth, Mahvish Jamal, Manish Wanjari
January-March 2012, 33(1):27-32
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.100303  PMID:23049180
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review.
  14 11,031 1,661
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Effect of fennel on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea: A placebo-controlled trial
Shabnam Omidvar, Sedighe Esmailzadeh, Mahmood Baradaran, Zahra Basirat
April-June 2012, 33(2):311-313
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.105259  PMID:23559811
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effect of Foeniculum vulgare on primary dysmenorrhoea. Sixty virgin girls with complaints of dysmenorrhoea were enrolled in this study, out of which 50 cases were completed the course of treatment and were divided in two groups (study and placebo) and were under treatment for two cycles. In study group a capsule of 30 mg fennel extract, four times a day for three days from start of their menstrual period and in placebo a capsule containing wheat flour in same dose was administered. Intensity of pain was reported by using a 10 - point linear analogue technique. In study group the mean age of menarche was 13.1 ± 0.1 and onset age of dysmenorrhoea was 14.5 ± 0.1 years. Both groups were relieved but there was significant difference between study and placebo group. Study group shown more effective results than placebo in pain relief (P<0.05). Based on the observations, it can be concluded that, fennel is an effective herbal drug for menstrual pain.
  14 9,534 968
CLINICAL RESEARCH
A clinical study on "Computer vision syndrome" and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha
MP Gangamma, Poonam , Manjusha Rajagopala
April-June 2010, 31(2):236-239
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.72407  PMID:22131717
American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively.
  13 9,587 1,606
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal. Linn.) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction
Prasad Mamidi, AB Thakar
July-September 2011, 32(3):322-328
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.93907  PMID:22529644
Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been defined as the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance. By 2025, men with ED will be approximately 322 million, an increase of nearly 170 million men from 1995. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction. In this study, a total of 95 patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction satisfying the DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria were selected, out of them 86 patients completed the course of treatment. In Trial Group, Ashwagandha root powder and in Control group, Placebo (Wheat powder) were given for 60 days. Treatment selection and its allocation were done by following computerized randomization plan. Criterion of assessment was based on the scoring of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Scale. Paired and Unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. In Trial group (n=41), 12.6% and in Control group (n=45), 19.11% of improvement was observed with the significance of (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) found in between the two groups. Both Ashwagandha and Placebo provided no relief (<25% improvement on IIEF) in psychogenic erectile dysfunction.
  13 7,542 949
CLINICAL RESEARCH
Clinical evaluation of selected Yogic procedures in individuals with low back pain
AM Pushpika Attanayake, K.I.W.K Somarathna, GH Vyas, SC Dash
April-June 2010, 31(2):245-250
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.72409  PMID:22131719
The present study has been conducted to evaluate selected yogic procedures on individuals with low back pain. The understanding of back pain as one of the commonest clinical presentations during clinical practice made the path to the present study. It has also been calculated that more than three-quarters of the world's population experience back pain at some time in their lives. Twelve patients were selected and randomly divided into two groups, viz., group A yogic group and group B control group. Advice for life style and diet was given for all the patients. The effect of the therapy was assessed subjectively and objectively. Particular scores drawn for yogic group and control group were individually analyzed before and after treatment and the values were compared using standard statistical protocols. Yogic intervention revealed 79% relief in both subjective and objective parameters (i.e., 7 out of 14 parameters showed statistically highly significant P < 0.01 results, while 4 showed significant results P < 0.05). Comparative effect of yogic group and control group showed 79% relief in both subjective and objective parameters. (i.e., total 6 out of 14 parameters showed statistically highly significant (P < 0.01) results, while 5 showed significant results (P < 0.05).
  12 4,287 800
CLINICAL RESEARCHES
Clinical study on Sandhigata Vata w.s.r. to osteoarthritis and its management by Panchatikta Ghrita Guggulu
Babul Akhtar, Raja Ram Mahto, AR Dave, VD Shukla
January-March 2010, 31(1):53-57
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.68210  PMID:22131685
Sandhigata Vata is the commonest form of articular disorder. It is a type of Vatavyadhi which mainly occurs in Vriddhavastha due to Dhatukshaya, which limits everyday activities such as walking, dressing, bathing etc. thus making patient disabled / handicapped. It being a Vatavyadhi, located in Marmasthisandhi and its occurrence in old age makes it Kashtasadhya. Vata Dosha plays main role in the disease. Shula Pradhana Vedana is the cardinal feature of the disease associated with Sandhishotha with Vata Purna Druti Sparsha, lack of movements of the joints or painful movement of the joints. In this study total 49 patients having the complaints of Osteoarthritis were randomly divided into 2 groups. In Group A, patients were treated with Panchatikta Ghrita Guggulu Vati along with Abhyanga and Nadi Swedana and in group B patients were treated with only Abhyanga and Nadi Swedana. The data shows that Panchatikta Ghrita Guggulu along with local Abhyanga and Nadi Swedana i.e. group A has provided better relief in the disease Sandhigata Vata.
  12 8,819 1,340
PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION
Evaluation of comparative free-radical quenching potential of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and Mandookparni (Centella asiatica)
Sourav Mukherjee, Swapnil Dugad, Rahul Bhandare, Nayana Pawar, Suresh Jagtap, Pankaj K Pawar, Omkar Kulkarni
April-June 2011, 32(2):258-264
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92549  PMID:22408313
Ayurvedic texts describe rejuvenate measures called Rasayana to impart biological sustenance to bodily tissues. Rasayana acting specifically on brain are called Medhya Rasayana. Brahmi is one of the most commonly practiced herbs for the same. Yet there exist a controversy regarding the exact plant species among Bacopa monnieri L. Penn (BM) and Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (CA) to be used as Brahmi in the formulations. Though the current literature available has suggested a very good nootropic potential of both the drugs, none of the studies have been carried out on comparative potential of these herbs to resolve the controversy. Free-radical scavenging potential for these plants is studied to find out their comparative efficacy. The study revealed a very good in vitro free-radical scavenging properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both the plants as evidenced by FRAP, DPPH, reducing power, and antilipid peroxidation assays. It can be concluded from the studies that both the plants, although taxonomically totally different at family level, showed similar type of in vitro activities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also revealed a significant similarity in the two plants. The in vitro study supports the Ayurvedic concept of BM and CA having a similar potential.
  12 6,867 928
PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY
In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark
Pankaj B Nariya, Nayan R Bhalodia, Vinay J Shukla, Rabinarayan Acharya, Mukesh B Nariya
January-March 2013, 34(1):124-128
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.115451  PMID:24049418
Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.
  12 4,239 902
Anti-inflammatory effect of Pueraria tuberosa extracts through improvement in activity of red blood cell anti-oxidant enzymes
Nidhi Pandey, Durgavati Yadav, Vivek Pandey, Yamini B Tripathi
July-September 2013, 34(3):297-301
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.123131  PMID:24501527
Changing life style and over-nutrition causes low-grade inflammation (LGI), with obesity and hyper-lipidemia as basic factors. The physiological state polarizes macrophages to classical type (M1), which is pro-inflammatory and promotes ectopic fat deposition in the body. Both factors induce inflammatory cascade, where free radicals (FRs) play an important role. Thus, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions would be effective in the management of LGI and plant products would be used as food supplement or as a drug. Previously, a study has reported the anti-oxidant potential of methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PTME) and inhibitory role of tuberosin on lipopolysaccharides-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages in an in vitro study model. Here, the effect of PTME has been explored on carrageenan-induced inflammatory changes in rats. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cell hemolysate has been assessed. PTME was orally given to rats for 9 days and periodical changes (every 3 rd day) in the activity/concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxides (LPO), and C-reactive proteins (CRP) were monitored. The PTME significantly prevented carrageenan-induced decline in GSH content, lowering of catalase and SOD activity, and rise in LPO and CRP in rats in a time-dependent, sequential manner. Thus, it could be suggested that the anti-inflammatory role of PTME is primarily mediated through its FR scavenging potential.
  12 3,302 522
REVIEW ARTICLES
Prakriti -based medicine: A step towards personalized medicine
Bijoya Chatterjee, Jigisha Pancholi
April-June 2011, 32(2):141-146
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92539  PMID:22408293
The concept of personalized medicine has been around for as long as people have been practicing medicine. From Charaka to Hippocrates, all have practiced the personalized approach for treating a disease. In the 21 st century, personalized medicine is all about DNA. Whereas the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and epigenetic factors influence drug response and form the basis of personalized medicine, the tridosha theory forms the basis of Prakriti-based medicine. It is well established by now that western allopathic medicine is excellent in handling acute medical crises, whereas Ayurveda has successfully demonstrated an ability to manage chronic disorders that Western medicine has been unable to cure. With effective integration of 'omics' Prakriti-based medicine can play a vital role in this changing scenario of global health wisdom as Ayurveda offers its modalities by way of ahara (diet), vihara (lifestyle), and aushadhi (medication), which are the three pillars of prakriti-based medicine making it a holistic science. Prakriti-based medicine and other traditional medicine systems have the potential to offer remedies to the challenging health issues like adverse drug reactions, drug withdrawals, and economic disparities among few. An integrative global approach could do wonders to health sciences benefiting a broad spectrum of patients.
  12 7,084 1,359
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Clinical efficacy of Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Makandi) in hypertension of geriatric population
Madhavi Jagtap, HM Chandola, B Ravishankar
January-March 2011, 32(1):59-65
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.85729  PMID:22131759
Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide. The present clinical study deals with the effect of Makandi (Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq.) Ghana vati and tablets of its powder in hypertension found in the geriatric age group (50-80 years). A total of 49 hypertensive patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were registered in two groups-Group I (Ghana vati) and Group II (Churna tablet). Out of 27 enrolled patients of group I, 21 patients completed the treatment. In Group II, out of 22 registered patients, a total of 20 patients completed the treatment. The effect of the therapy was assessed on the basis of changes in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, in both sitting and supine positions; with Manasa Bhava Pariksha, Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha, symptomatology, geriatric signs and symptoms, and a brief psychiatric rating scale. Analysis of the results showed that the treatment in both the groups had been found to be good. It can be stated that Makandi, either in Ghana vati form or in churna tablet form, is an effective remedy for the treatment of hypertension. On analyzing the overall effect, 76.19% patients in Group I and 75.00% patients in Group II were mildly improved. Comparatively the overall treatment with group I was found to be better.
  11 5,750 758
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