AYU (An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda)

REVIEW ARTICLE
Year
: 2010  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 106--110

Therapeutic uses of Swarnamakshika bhasma (A critical review)


Ramesh Kumar Gupta1, Vijay Lakshmi2, S Mahapatra1, CB Jha1,  
1 Dept. of Rasa Shastra, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
2 Dept. of Prasutitantra, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

Correspondence Address:
Ramesh Kumar Gupta
Dept. of Rasa Shastra, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
India

Abstract

Mineral drugs play an important role in Ayurvedic therapeutics. Looking to the superiority of the metals and minerals to that of herbal and animal drugs, the Rasavaidyas went on experimenting clinical trials over lot of metals and minerals and systematically separated some of them which were exclusively active therapeutically. Swarnamakshika is one such mineral which after proper purification and incineration become highly potent and utilised for diseases like Jwara, Pandu, Prameha, Shwasa, Kasa, Kushtha, Anidra, Apasmar etc.



How to cite this article:
Gupta RK, Lakshmi V, Mahapatra S, Jha C B. Therapeutic uses of Swarnamakshika bhasma (A critical review).AYU 2010;31:106-110


How to cite this URL:
Gupta RK, Lakshmi V, Mahapatra S, Jha C B. Therapeutic uses of Swarnamakshika bhasma (A critical review). AYU [serial online] 2010 [cited 2021 Oct 20 ];31:106-110
Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2010/31/1/106/68191


Full Text

 Introduction



Disease is one of the main causes of sorrow. It influences the total efficiency of human beings, resulting in inability to carry on their routine activities. Medicine is the tool by which the disease can be prevented or cured or controlled.

The history of medicine is very ancient. Literature reveal the chronological development of medicaments. Earlier, the herbs were more prevalent but later on when the therapeutic value of minerals and their processing were known and developed then these were also came in frequent use for medicinal purposes. The sources of drug material are herbal, mineral and animal. These are used in various forms in Ayurvedic therapeutics.

According to Ayurveda, equilibrium of Dosha, Dhatu and Mala are responsible for positive health. The herbs and minerals are equally efficient to check the imbalance which occurs during the diseased state. Due to certain better qualities like prompt action, small doses, tastelessness, effectiveness in incurable diseases and long shelf life, mineral preparations are preferred over herbal formulations. Raw materials of the mineral preparation are Mercury, Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, Lead, Tin, Zinc, Mica, Sulphur etc.

Body consists of more than 70 elements and the deficiency of these essential elements causes various disorders. The supplements of these elements are required in very small amount. Hence the bhasmas of metals and minerals are effective in small doses. These preparations are considered potent for the curative and preventive purposes and also provide strong and healthy body and delays ageing.

Swarnamakshika is well known material used to treat various diseases in the form of bhasma successfully since centuries as single or compound preparation with other herbomineral drugs. There are so many compound preparations mentioned in ancient texts in contexts of treatment of various diseases. In this article it has been tried to compile some effective formulations of Swarnamakshika bhasma from the Ayurvedic literature and presented in a classified way along with its pharmaceutical procedure.[Table 1],[Table 2]

 Discussion



Swarnamakshika is a mineral of MAharasa varga used by Rasavaidyas as therapeutics since Samhita period. Specific description about its therapeutic use has not been made available during Vedic period. However in Samhita period, use of Swarnamakshika bhasma is made available in certain Rasayogas, but the pharmaceutical processing of conversion of raw Swarnamakshika into such form to make it suitable for therapeutic use, is not available in any Samhitas. But in text of Post Nagarjuna period, systemic and detailed description about identification, varieties, physical properties, Shodhana, Marana and its therapeutic use as bhasma alone or with other herbominerals, are described. In this study, it is found that Swarnamakshika bhasma is a therapeutic agent with high pharmacological and therapeutic properties. There are so many formulations of this mineral is mentioned in texts of Ayurveda in context of treatment of diseases like Jwara, Shwasa, Kasa, Kshaya, Prameha, Pandu, Anidra, Apasmara, Vatavyadhi and other chronic and dreadful diseases.

 Conclusion



The drugs of mineral origin are very potent and have a wide range of therapeutic efficacy in acute, chronic as well as in non curable diseases. Swarnamakshika is a compound of Copper, Iron and Sulphur having wide range of therapeutic efficacy.

It is frequently used in the form of bhasma alone or with other herbomineral drugs mainly in treatment of Jwara, Pandu, Anidra, Prameha, Kshaya etc., and also for Rasayana and Vajikarana purposes.

After critically analysing the above formulations, it was observed that maximum number of formulations containing Swarnamakshika bhasma are indicated in Jwara (37%), Kasa, Shwasa, Kshaya (34%), Prameha (25%), and in Pandu (17%).[22]

References

1Vaidya Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini with Sanskrit commentary by Pandit Haridatta Shastri, edited by Pandit Kasinath Shastri, 11th edition, Motilal Banarasidas 2004, 21/1-2.
2Pandit Narahari, Raj Nighantu, edited with Dravyaguna Prakashika Hindi commentary by Dr. Indra Dev Tripathi, 1st edition, Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi.
3Acharya Vagbhata, Rasa Ratna Samuchhaya with Rasaprada Hindi commentary by Dr. Indra Dev Tripathi, 2nd edition, Chaukhambha Sanskrita Bhawan, 2003.
4Ibid. (1), 21/4.
5Ibid. (1), 21/4.
6Ibid. (1), 21/5.
7Ibid. (3), 2/81.
8Ibid. (1), 21/7-11.
9Ibid. (1), 21/15-17.
10Ibid. (1), 21/18.
11Ibid. (1), 21/19-20.
12Ibid. (1), 21/21-22.
13Ibid. (1), 21/23-25.
14Ibid. (3), 2/87-88.
15Ibid. (1), 21/46.
16Ibid. (1), 21/43-45.
17Ibid. (1), 21/49-51.
18Ibid. (3), 2/79-80.
19Ibid. (1), 21/28.
20Sri Madhava Upadhyaya, Ayurveda Prakash (4/9-10) with Hindi Commentary by Sri Gularaja Sharma, Chaukhambha Bharati Acadamy, 2007.
21Ibid. (1), 21/29.
22Ibid. (20), 4/9-10.