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PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 445-451

An in-vitro evaluation of the efficacy of garlic extract as an antimicrobial agent on periodontal pathogens: A microbiological study


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Periodontics, Chhattisgarh Dental College and Research Institute, Rajnandgaon, Chhattisgarh, India
2 Professor and Head, Department of Periodontics, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Professor, Department of Microbiology, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
4 Professor, Department of Periodontics, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
5 Professor, Department of Pedodontics, Chhattisgarh Dental College and Research Institute, Rajnandgaon, Chhattisgarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sunaina Shetty
Department of Periodontics, Chhattisgarh Dental College and Research Institute, Rajnandgaon - 491 441,
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.127732

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With the rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, there is considerable interest in the development of other classes of antimicrobials for the control of infection. Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) has been used as medicine since ancient times and has long been known to have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. This study was undertaken to assess the inhibitory effect of garlic on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, to assess the time-kill curve of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, and to determine the antiproteolytic activity of garlic on P. gingivalis. Ethanolic garlic extract (EGE) and aqueous garlic extract (AGE) were prepared and the inhibitory effects of these extracts for two periodontal pathogens (P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans) were tested. Antiproteolytic activity on protease of P. gingivalis was determined. 25 microliter (μl), 50 μl, and 75 μl of AGE showed 16 mm, 20 mm, and 25 mm zone of inhibition, respectively, on P. gingivalis. The AGE showed greater bacteriostatic activity against the P. gingivalis with minimum inhibitory concentration determined at 16.6 μl/ml. The time-kill assay of AGE and EGE were compared for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. AGE showed better antiproteolytic activity on total protease of P. gingivalis compared to the EGE. Thus, the study concludes the antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against periodontal pathogens, P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its action against P. gingivalis includes inhibition of total protease activity, and this raises the possibility that garlic may have therapeutic use for periodontitis and possibly other oral infections.


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