|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 373-378
Effect of selected Samana and Vicitra Pratyayarabdha Dravya w.s.r. to Vipaka
Anuruchi Jadoun1, Rambabu Dwivedi2
1 Lecturer, Department of Samhita Evam Siddhanta, Shubhdeep Ayurved Medical College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Professor and Head, Department of Basic Principles, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
|Date of Web Publication||21-Feb-2014|
Flat No. 107, Dharmnath Apartment, 6/A - Silicon City, A.B. Road, Indore, Madhya Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Concept of Arabdhata and Pratyayarabdhata is a unique concept of Ayurveda, which is related to the conjugation and configuration of Mahabhutas (penta elements). Every substance undergoes some changes during digestion and metabolism in terms of changes in its Panchabhautika composition. If substance retains its Panchabhautika composition throughout the digestion and metabolism, it is known as Samana Pratyayarabdhata and if Panchabhautika composition of substance becomes totally different after digestion and metabolism, it is known as Vicitra Pratyayarabdhata. The change in Panchabhautika composition of substance can be seen at the level of Vipaka (post-digestive effect) or Virya (potency), which are not found according to Rasa (taste) and hence the Karma (action) of substance becomes different from its Rasa. Therefore, four drugs were selected, two having Samana Pratyayarabdhata (Nimba and Vasa) and two having Vicitra Pratyayarabdhata (Bhumyamalaki and Shankhapushpi). Clinical study was carried out on 24 healthy volunteers having Madhyama Koshta, divided into four groups, one group for each drug. The effects of drugs were assessed according to their Vipaka on Koshta (Bowel habit) especially on stool and habit of defecation (Srishtavinmutrata or Baddhavinmutrata). All the drugs showed effect according to their Vipaka in few parameters, but most of the results were statistically insignificant which suggested that substances perform their action according to their Pratyayarabdhata.
Keywords: Samana Pratyayarabdha , Vicitra Pratyayarabdha, Vipaka
|How to cite this article:|
Jadoun A, Dwivedi R. Effect of selected Samana and Vicitra Pratyayarabdha Dravya w.s.r. to Vipaka. AYU 2013;34:373-8
| Introduction|| |
Although many Ayurvedic concepts described in the Samhitas seem very easy, they are actually very difficult to understand, as the Samhitas presented everything in a concise form. There are certain concepts which need to be explored and evaluated through their practical applicability. One of such concepts is the concept of Vipaka (post-digestive effect) and its effect as a part of applied aspect of concept of Samana and Vicitra Pratyayarabdhata. All substances show mainly three types of Vipaka after digestion, which depends on their Rasa (tastes).  The relation of Rasa of substances with their Vipakadi Guna (post-digestive effect, potency, etc.,) is given based on the concept of Samana and Vicitra Pratyayarabdhata. Arabdhata means the origin of any substance by its unique conjugation and configuration of Panchamahabhutas,  which determines all the properties of substances. Changes in the Arabdhata during digestion and metabolism are known as Pratyayarabdhata,  which happen due to change in the conjugation and configuration of Mahabhutas during digestion and metabolism. When any substance is ingested, it is digested and metabolized by the action of different Agni (digestive power), i.e., Jatharagni, Bhutagni, and Dhatwagni. During the entire process, it decomposes and re-synthesizes several times in form of breakdown and reformation of bonds between the Panchamahabhutas.  So, the Panchabhautika composition of the substance changes again and again, resulting in the manifestation of Vipaka, Virya (potency), Prabhava (cause for specific action), etc., at different levels of Agni (digestive power). On the basis of the results of these breakdown and re-synthesis processes, all the substances can be categorized in two categories. The substances whose Panchabhautika composition after re-synthesis remains the same as that of the original substance every time are known as Samana Pratyayarabdha substances. In such type of substances, the Vipaka, Virya, Karma of a substance are found in conformity with Rasa, so determination of all the properties and action of substance is possible only by knowing its Rasa. While the substance whose Panchabhautika composition changes at either level of digestion one or more times and becomes different from the original substance, are known as Vicitra Pratyayarabdha substances. In such type of substances, the Vipaka, Virya, Karma, etc., of the substances are not found in conformity with Rasa, so determination of all the properties of a substance is not possible only by knowing its Rasa, and it becomes mandatory to know about every property of a substance before using it.  Hence substances having same Rasa may also show different properties and action depending on their Vipaka, Virya, etc., at different levels of Pratyayarabdhata.
To find out the differences between Samana and Vicitra Pratyayarabdha substances, difference at the level of Vipaka has been selected here for applied study, as assessment of all the levels of Pratyayarabdhata is not possible in a single study. Vipaka shows its effect on Dosha (body humors), Dhatu (tissues), and Malas (excretory products),  and it is easy to assess the effect of Vipaka on the Malas, and hence, the present clinical study has been designed to ascertain the effect of selected Samana and Vicitra Pratyayarabdha drugs on Malas, particularly on stool. Four drugs having same Rasa, i.e., Tikta Rasa (bitter taste) and Virya, i.e., Shita Virya (cold in potency) but different Vipakas were selected. Nimba and Vasa possess Katu Vipaka (pungent post-digestive effect) whereas Bhumyamalaki and Shankhapushpi possess Madhura Vipaka (sweet post-digestive effect).
Hence, the applied (clinical) study was planned considering the hypothesis that Samana Pratyayarabdha drugs (Nimba and Vasa) will create Baddhavinmutrata (difficulty in excretion) as per their Katu Vipaka (pungent post-digestive effect) and Vicitra Pratyayarabdha drugs (Bhumyamalaki and Shankhapushpi) will create Srishtavinmutrata (easy excretion) as per their Madhura Vipaka.  The purpose of the present clinical study was not to cure any diseased condition, but to see the effect of Vipaka on Koshta (Bowel habit), so it was conducted in healthy volunteers and to find out the similarity and differences in Karma (action) of Samana and Vicitra Pratyayarabdha drugs.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Healthy volunteers having Madhyama Koshta were selected from the PG and PhD scholars of I.P.G.T. and R.A., Jamnagar.
Four selected drugs in tablet form.
The raw drugs were identified and authenticated in the Pharmacognosy Department, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Jamnagar. Then, the tablets were prepared by adding 3% gum acacia in pharmacy, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Jamnagar.
For the diagnosis and assessment of Madhyama Koshta, a specific research proforma was prepared on the basis of characteristics of Madhyama Koshta through scoring pattern based on the condition of stool and defecation, viz., frequency, passing, consistency, and quantity, etc., before giving the selected drugs. The scoring was given to each character ranging from 0-2.
Here, 0 stands For Mridu Koshta,
- for Madhyama Koshta, and
- for Krura Koshta.
- Frequency of stool
0-2 times a day
1 once a day
2 - Passing stool on alternate day.
- Consistency of stool
0 - Unformed
1 - Formed
2 - Formed and hard.
- Quantity of stool
0 - Bahu
1 - Normal
2 - Alpa.
- Passing of stool (usually)
0 - Without any effort and satisfactory
1 - With normal efforts and satisfactory
2 - With more efforts and unsatisfactory.
- Usually time taken for defecation
0 - 1-5 min
1 - 5-10 min
2 - More than 10 min.
- Feeling of urge for defecation
0 - Feeling of urge upon waking-up in the morning
1 - Feeling of urge within 10-30 min of waking-up
2 - Not feeling of urge and needs to consume food.
- Effect of taking hot milk, hot water, etc., at night
0 - Watery loose stool and frequent
1 - Slightly loose but formed stool once
2 - No effect.
Totally, seven criteria were selected and if four or more than four criteria out of seven scored only one, then the volunteer was diagnosed as having Madhyama Koshta.
After giving medicine if there is a shift from 1 to 0 (upward), means the grading is decreasing, it is considered that medicine is creating Srishtavinmutrata. If otherwise then it is considered that medicine is creating Baddhavinmutrata.
- Healthy volunteers between 25 and 30 years. Age group having Madhyama Koshta were selected without any bar of race, religion, and gender
- Volunteers whose pathological reports and general observations, i.e. temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, and B.P. were within the normal range.
- Volunteers below age of 25 years and above 30 years
- Volunteers not having Madhyama Koshta
- Sufferers of any major or minor disease.
The study was cleared by the ethical committee of the institute. Written consent was taken from each volunteer willing to participate before the starting of the study.
To rule out major pathology or systemic disease, routine pathological investigation of blood, urine, and stool was carried out once before giving the drugs.
It was an open clinical trial.
Grouping and posology
All volunteers were randomly divided into four groups.
Group-N: Tablets of Nimba Patra Curna (powder of leaves) were provided
Group-V: Tablets of Vasa Patra Curna were provided
Group-B: Tablets of Bhumyamalaki Pancanga Curna (powder of whole plant) were provided
Group-S: Tablets of Shankhapushpi Pancanga Curna were provided.
4 tablets (each of 500 mg) were administered thrice a day, after 3 h of meal with normal water for 7 days.
Criteria for assessment
- Percentage change in scoring of the characteristics of Madhyama Koshta has been assessed by scoring and gradation pattern after giving the drugs
- Comparison between the effects of drugs was done by assessing percentage changes in between groups.
Paired 't' test was used to assess the effect of drugs in each group.
- Insignificant P < 0.1
- Significant P < 0.05 or P < 0.01
- Highly significant P < 0.001.
| Observations|| |
A total of 24 healthy volunteers were registered for the present study, with 6 in each group. All volunteers had completed the clinical trial. Majority of the volunteers were female (58.30%), unmarried (62.5%), and from the higher middle class (75%). Maximum volunteers were taking diet regularly (87.5%), Matravata, i.e. according to hunger (75%), Ushna, i.e., hot (83.33%), Snigdha, i.e. unctuous (79.16%), and Laghu, i.e., light (54.17%) guna (property) dominant. Frequency of meal was two times a day in 41.67% of the volunteers and three times a day in other 41.67% of the volunteers. Samashana (eating wholesome and unwholesome diet collectively) was found in 41.67% of the volunteers. Maximum volunteers (62.5%) were habitual to taking water during the meal. Majority of the volunteers were having Samagni, i.e. normal digestive power (83.33%) and Vata-Kaphaja Prakriti (41.67%).
Among the characteristics of Madhyama Kostha, in majority of the volunteers, frequency of stool was once a day (83.33%), consistency of stool was formed (83.33%), quantity of stool was normal (83.33%), passing of stool was with normal efforts and satisfaction (79.17%), time taken for defecation was 1-5 min (58.33%) and 5-10 min (41.67%), feeling of urge for defecation was within 10-30 min of wake-up (62.5%), effect of taking hot milk, etc., at night was as slightly loose, but formed stool (62.5%).
| Results|| |
In Group N, frequency of stool (20%) and time taken for defecation (33.33%) were increased, while consistency of stool became hard (40%), passing required more efforts than previous (50%), quantity of stool (16.67%), and urge for defecation (40%) were decreased and there was no change in the effect of taking hot milk, etc., at night. All the changes were statistically insignificant [Table 1].
In Group V, frequency of stool (100%) and time taken for defecation (66.67%) and urge for defecation (25%) were increased, while consistency of stool became hard (40%), passing of stool required more efforts (80%) than previous, quantity of stool decreased (40%), and there was no change in the effect of taking hot milk, etc., at night. All the changes were statistically insignificant, except the frequency of stool which was highly significant (P < 0.001) [Table 2].
In Group B, frequency (66.67%), quantity of stool (50%), and urge for defecation (60%) were increased, consistency became unformed (50%) than previous, passing of stool became easy (16.67%), and the effect of taking hot milk, etc., at night was shifting toward Baddhavitkata, i.e. difficulty in excretion (12.5%). There was no change in time taken for defecation. Among these changes, change in frequency of stool (P < 0.01), consistency of stool (P < 0.05), and change in urge for defecation (P < 0.05) were significant and other changes were insignificant statistically [Table 3].
In Group S, frequency (16.67%), quantity of stool (42.85%), and urge for defecation (20%) were increased, while consistency of stool became unformed than previous (16.67%), passing required less efforts than previous (66.67%), and there was no change in time taken for defecation and effect of taking hot milk, etc., at night. Change in the quantity of stool (P < 0.05) and passing of stool were statistically significant (P < 0.01), while other changes were found insignificant [Table 4].
| Discussion|| |
Most of the observations were supportive of healthy status of volunteers and were related to Madhyama Koshta.
It was found that in few volunteers, four criteria of Madhyama Koshta were found, in some volunteers five, in some six, and in some volunteers, all the seven criteria of Madhyama Koshta was found. So, on the basis of this finding, it can be said that Madhyama Koshta also may be of several types like Pravara (extreme), Madhya (medium), and Avara (slight) type.
Vipaka acts on Dosha, Dhatu, and Malas, but effects on Dosha and Dhatus are difficult to assess because of the short duration of study (7 days) and effect on Doshas and Dhatus is usually cumulative effect of many factors, so to assess the effect of Vipaka on Malas becomes comparatively easy. Effect on urine output was also tried to assess, but it would become possible to assess in some volunteers only, as the changes in urine output were very minor.
It was supposed that Samana Pratyayarabdha drugs (Nimba and Vasa) which are having Katu Vipaka should cause Baddhavinmutrata in terms of decrease in frequency and quantity of stool, hard consistency, passing with difficulty, increased time taken for defecation, and decreased urge for defecation. In contrast to this, Vicitra Pratyayarabdha drugs (Bhumyamalaki and Shankhapushpi) which are having Madhura Vipaka should cause Srishtavinmutrata in terms of increase in frequency and quantity of stool, loose consistency, easy passing, decreased time taken for defecation, and increased urge for defecation.
In Nimba-treated group, most of the changes were according to the hypothesis, [Graph 1] [Additional file 1] i.e., Baddhavitkata (difficulty in excretion), except the frequency of stool which has increased. The reason may be that frequency of stool may increase in both the conditions, i.e. constipation and loose stool. Because in the condition of constipation, bowels do not evacuate properly at once, as passing of stool requires more efforts and the person may require to defecate more than one time. There was no change in the effect after taking hot milk, etc., because the Baddhavitkata was not so much that it could change the type of Koshta.
In the Vasa-treated group too, majority of changes were according to the hypothesis, [Graph 1] i.e., Baddhavitkata, except frequency of stool and urge for defecation, which were increased. The reason for increased frequency is same as in Nimba group.
Urge for defecation was increased in the Vasa group, it may be due to either of two reasons:
- If in the condition of constipation person passes stool on alternate day, then urge may increase because of increased fecal load in intestines.
- It may be change in Pratyayarabdhata of Vasa at few places due to Vipaka Viparyasa (change in Vipaka) told by Bhadanta Nagarjuna in Rasa Vaisheshika Sutra. 
In the Vasa-treated group too, there was no change due to drinking of hot milk, etc., same as the Nimba group.
The percentage changes in frequency, quantity, passing, and time taken for defecation were more in Vasa group than in Nimba group. The reason could be due to its Ruksha Guna (dry property), leading to more Baddhavitkata.
In the Bhumyamalaki-treated group too, most of the effects were according to the hypothesis, [Graph 2] [Additional file 2] i.e., Srishtavitkata (easy excretion), indicating that Bhumyamalaki is acting according to Vipaka (post-digestive effect). There was no change in time taken for defecation, because it was within 1-5 min before treatment and in case of Srishtata even if there was a decrease in time taken it was also considered in same range. There was slight change in effect of taking hot milk, etc., which was shifting toward Baddhavitkata and was opposite of the hypothesis, but the change was very minute and insignificant.
In the Shankhapushpi group too, the changes were according to the hypothesis, [Graph 2] i.e., Srishtavitkata. There was no change in the time taken for defecation and in effect of taking hot milk, etc., the reason is same as the Bhumyamalaki group.
Most of the changes in Bhumyamalaki group were more in percentage than Shankhapushpi group, because of Laghu Ruksha Guna (light and dry property) and Dipana Karma (appetizer quality). Bhumyamalaki causes more correction of Agni (digestive power) by decreasing Dravata (liquidity) of Pitta Dosha and subsequently in defecation. 
Maximum changes were statistically insignificant, because there is limitation of Karma of a drug. A drug affects more on the pathological condition, but in normal physiological condition, it does not cause much effect. As the trial was conducted on healthy volunteers, the changes occurring in normal physiology were found only to limits which are not reaching up to pathological condition. It is the tendency of the body, that in healthy condition, it tries to tolerate the effect of any medicine up to a limit, but when it becomes beyond the limit that a body can respond to medicine, the response remains in normal ranges and does not reached-up to pathological condition. So in healthy volunteers, the drugs didn't show more changes.
| Conclusion|| |
Both Samana Pratyayarabdha drugs Nimba and Vasa show effect according to the hypothesis in most of the parameters, but percentage of changes in Vasa group were more as compared to Nimba because of Ruksha Guna of Vasa. Both Vicitra Pratyayarabdha drugs also show effects according to the hypothesis, which proves the action of drugs according to Vipaka. Most of the effects were statistically insignificant, which shows that drugs act according to Vipaka to some extent, but Vipaka is not the only factor which decides the action of a drug. Another reason of insignificancy may be due to its use on clinically healthy volunteers, where changes are not expected to be more. So, it can be said that the substances perform their action according to their Pratyayarabdhata.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]