|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 356-360
Scientific study of Charakokta Anguli Pramana in reference to human height
Shashikant K Muley1, Ajit A Surve2, Swati D Bhingare3
1 Associate Professor and Head, Department of Sharir Rachana, Government Ayurved College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India
2 Reader, Department of Sharir Rachana, J.G. Co-operative Society's Ayurved Medical College, Ghataprabha, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
3 Lecturer, Department of Sharir Rachana, S.N.K.D. Trust's Ayurvedic College, Nalasopara, Thane, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||21-Feb-2014|
Shashikant K Muley
Flat No. 6, Mandakini Apartment, Gurudwara Road, Nanded - 431 601, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Ayurveda has dynamic and creative view on health and gives importance to the individual while managing his health and also during treating the diseases. Ayurveda is a system of health science which not only includes the knowledge of body and diseases but also includes the way of living healthy i.e., "Swastha0". The concept of Maana-Pramana is one of the significant contributions of Ayurveda. This study was undertaken to evaluate the Charakokta Sutra (verse) which implies that "Height (Aayama) of human being is 84 fingers (Anguli) and is equal to Arm Span (Vistaara)". In the present study, anthropometric measurements by finger were taken and exact site of particular finger in a manner to execute "Anguli Sthana Nishchiti" was determined. The data of Aayama and Vistaara of the 100 volunteers was recorded and statistically analysed. After comparing the Anguli Pramana (Measurement through finger) obtained at 78 different sites of both hands, it was established that measurement of Anguli Pramana at the site of medio-lateral proximal interphalangeal joint of middle finger of right and left hand, would be most accurate in estimating Anguli Pramana.
Keywords: Aayama-Vistaara, Anguli Pramana , anthropometry, human height
|How to cite this article:|
Muley SK, Surve AA, Bhingare SD. Scientific study of Charakokta Anguli Pramana in reference to human height. AYU 2013;34:356-60
| Introduction|| |
No two individual are completely alike physically, physiologically, psychologically, or in vital reactions. Hence, Ayurveda has individualized the concept of health. The word "Swastha0" is significant of this recognition of individuality denoted by the term "Swa", which means one's own peculiar constitution.  Ancient sages of India, like Charaka and Sushruta have built up their system of health and disease on this bed-rock of individual constitution. If physician wants to know the state of equilibrium of all the body elements, he can do it only by finding the sign of perfect health in that individual i.e. Samadosha. Samaagni, Samadhatu, Sama Malakriya.  For measuring the Maana of Doshas and Dhatus various system of measurements like Anjali Pramana, Anguli Pramana are been described. 
For theoretical purposes, the norms of healthy man in general can be described as a range of values to be accepted as a standard, found to be the average, in a person who appears healthy and free from disability or disease. But for practical application, the study of individual will be necessary to achieve accuracy in diagnosis and therapeutics.
All the Bruhat Trayees (three major classical texts of Ayurveda) have mentioned regarding Anguli Pramana, but have not mentioned the specific site of Anguli to be used for measurement.
The principal of Anguli Pramana is an exclusive unique entity of Ayurveda, compared to other system of medicine and it's utility has to be made the practical hence the study was undertaken to evaluate the Charakota Anguli Pramana in reference to human height.
| Materials and Methods|| |
For the present study, 100 healthy volunteers were selected from outpatient department (OPD) and inpatient department (IPD) of Govt. Ayurved medical college and Hospital (staff members), Nanded, Maharashtra.
Criteria for selection
- Healthy volunteers having proportionate body parts
- Age group of 16-70 years.
Acharyas have described the age group 16-70 years as Madhya Vaya (Middle stage of life). In this age all the Sharir Dhatus are matured and the possibility of volunteer being healthy is more when compared to other groups. So this age group was selected.
- Unhealthy persons with known bony disorders like Gout, etc
- Clinical conditions like severe dehydration, malnourishment, generalized edema etc
- Traumatic injuries or pathologies which are likely to interfere while measuring the Anguli, height and Arm Span
- Atihraswa (excessive short stature)
- Atidirgha (excessive long stature)
- Handicapped personnel (both extremities damaged).
In the present study, anthropometric measurement by Anguli was conducted to decide the exact site of finger of the volunteer used for measurement and in manner which "Anguli Sthana Nishchiti" should be measured. Then, Aayama and Vistaara of the volunteer were measured on Anthropometer.
Methods for taking Anguli Pramana, Aayama and Vistaara
- Anguli Pramana: Reference of Hand Geometry was used. With the help of Vernier Calliper, reading was taken as follows
- Reading of ChaturAnguli (four finger together) taken at the level of I. Proximal interphalangeal joint of little finger II. Proximal interphalangeal joint of index finger.
- Reading of Tarjani (index finger) taken at 3 different levels, both in antero-posterior direction and mediolateral direction.
- Metacarpophalangeal Joint
a) Antero-posterior b) Medio-lateral
- Proximal interphalangeal joint
a) Antero-posterior b) Medio-lateral
- Distal interphalangeal joint
a) Antero-posterior b) Medio-lateral.
Similarly 6 reading of Madhyama (middle finger), Anamika (Ring finger) and Kanishthika (little finger) were taken.
In this way, total 26 readings of right hand and Left hand were taken. Average reading of right and left hand were calculated and recorded in record paper. In this way total 78 reading were recorded. "Hand geometry" for Anguli pramana was studied in 100 patients.
Methods for Aayama and Vistaara measurement
The level was kept on the foot board, to ensure that the "Anthropometer" was mounted on perfectly horizontal plane. The horizontal bar was approximated to the shoulder height of the volunteer.
The volunteer was asked to stand erect on the foot board with the heels together, head in the Frankfurt's plane and both arm extended laterally at the shoulder height. The movable 'Head Board' was brought in contact with the vertex of the head. The volunteer was asked to inhale deeply and at the same time the height was recorded. Furthermore the Arm Span reading was recorded from tip of middle finger of one hand to the tip of middle finger of another hand. The height measurement was recorded in centimetre and divided by the measurement of Anguli and was recorded in terms of Anguli. Similarly the height was expressed in term of Anguli at 78 different levels in one volunteer. The same procedure was followed for all 100 volunteer.
While taking measurement of Anguli for Anguli Pramana
- Ring ornaments were removed from the finger
- The vernier calliper was not pressed too tight nor left too loose. It was assured that there was no space between the calliper and the finger
- The hand was kept on the flat surface
- The vernier calliper was held perpendicular to the long axis of the finger.
While taking measurement for Anguli Pramana
- The volunteer was asked to remove his/her footwear and socks
- The head of the volunteer was kept in Frankfurt's plane
- The volunteer was asked to inhale deeply and maintain full erect position while taking measurement
- It was assured that the volunteer's heels were not elevated while deep breathing
- The measurer remained at the eye level of the head board while noting down the measurement.
| Results|| |
A total number of 100 healthy volunteer, registered to find out and fix which Anguli (finger) need to be measured in order to get Anguli Pramana equal to or near to 84 Anguli The major observations on age and sex wise distribution and statistical results of measuring Aayama and Vistaara have been tabulate. [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3].
|Table 2: Site wise distribution of volunteers having Aayama (height) near to or equal to 84 Anguli|
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|Table 3: Statistical values for Aayama (height) and Vistaara (arm span) in 100 volunteer|
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- The number of volunteers having Aayama equal to 84 Anguli (±0.85) is 82
- The number of volunteers having Aayama and Vistaara equal to each other were 13 (13%)
- The number of volunteers having Aayama and Vistaara qual to 84 Anguli were 11 (11%)
- The number of volunteerss having Vistaara more than Aayama was 80 (80%)
- The number of volunteers having Aayama more than Vistaara were 7 (7%)
- Out of 82 right handed volunteers, the number of volunteer having exclusively only right hand measurement leading to height equal to or near to 84 Anguli were 6 (7.3%)
- Out of 18 left handed volunteer, the no. of volunteer having exclusively only right hand measurement leading to height equal to or near to 84 Anguli were 3 (16.6%)
- Range of Aayama was 81.58 Anguli to 86.79 Anguli and of Vistaara was 80.93 Anguli to 90.41 Anguli
- The mean Aayama was 84.11 ± 0.851 Anguli and of Vistaara was 86.26 ± 2.078 Anguli
- The confidence limit at 95% (mean ± 2 Standard error [SE]) for Aayama was 83.93 Anguli-84.28 Anguli. The confidence limit at 95% (Mean ± 2 SE) for Vistaara was 85.86 Anguli-86.66 Anguli
- The co-efficient correlation between Aayama and Vistaara was 0.24, which is significant at 5% level (P < 0.05)
- The difference between Mean Aayama and Vistaara was 2.1492 Anguli
- Z value for mean Aayama and Vistaara was 9.57 Anguli which was greater than 2 SE (0.44)
- The mean Aayama was 84.1 Anguli
- The mean Vistaara was 86.2 Anguli.
| Discussion|| |
According to Charaka the Aayama of human being should be 84 Anguli and should be equal to Vistaara, such a body is called Sama Sharir i.e. anatomically proportionate body. This study was designed to prove the above hypothesis. It included anthropometrical measurements of 100 volunteer of age 16-70 years.
First the Anguli Sthana Nishchiti was done and then Anguli Pramana with respect to Aayama and Vistaara was studied. While taking Aayama and Vistaara, standard anthropometrical protocol for measuring Aayama and Vistaara was followed.
Out of 78 sites of both the hand, the probability of height near to or equal to 84 Anguli, at the site of average of right and left hand, mediolateral proximal interphalangeal joint of middle finger is 77 out of 100 volunteer i.e. 77% which is more when compared to other sites.
The mean height in Anguli is 84.11 which are nearer to 84 Anguli, as said by Charakacharya. Also the standard deviation at this site is ±0.8. This indicates that, regarding the hypothesis of Charakacharya about 84 Anguli Aayama, the Anguli Sthana Nishchiti can be done at the site of Average of right and left hand, mediolateral proximal interphalangeal joint of middle finger. And this would be most accurate in estimating Anguli Pramana.
While taking Anguli Pramana, sum of measurements of medio-lateral proximal interphalangeal joint of middle finger of right and left hand should be taken and this sum should be divided by 2.
R = Medio-lateral Measurement of Proximal Inter phalangeal joint of Middle finger of Right hand.
L = Medio-lateral Measurement of Proximal Interphalangeal joint of Middle finger of Left hand.
Regarding the Aayama and Mean Vistaara
11 out of 13 volunteers (84.61%) had Aayama and Vistaara of 84 Anguli. It implies that the probability of equal Pramana is more in persons having Aayama equal to Vistaara i.e., Sama Aayama and Vistaara.
In maximum no. of volunteers (80%), the Vistaara was greater than Aayama. The difference between Mean Aayama and Vistaara was 2.1492 Anguli. Z value (9.57) was greater than 2 SE (0.44). It implies that in 95% of population the difference between Aayama and Vistaara is because of real variability and not by chance (biological variability). In the ancient times, Vistaara as described by was 84 Anguli, but in today's era in maximum volunteer Vistaara is found to be more than Aayama. In the recent research it was found that Vistaara is more than Aayama. This difference may be because of some evolutionary changes in the human being.
The percentage of right handed volunteer having exclusively right hand measurement leading to Aayama equal to or near to 84 Anguli were 7.3% while that of left handed volunteer having exclusively left hand measurement leading to Aayama (Height) equal to or near to 84 Anguli were 16.6% implies that being right or left handed did not play any role in doing Anguli Sthana Nishchiti.
The co-efficient correlation between Aayama and Vistaara was 0.24 which implies that the co-relation is partially positive i.e., Vistaara increases with increase in Aayama and vice-versa, in 95% of population.
The confidence limit range for Aayama was 83.93 to 84.28 Anguli, and for Vistaara was 85.86 to 86.66 Anguli, which implies that this range contains the 95% of population.
Today, height of a person is measured in centimetres, inches etc., Even though, height of two persons measured in centimetres might be the same but according to Anguli Pramana both the persons may differ in height. While that of volunteer may differ apparently in height in centimetres but according to their Anguli Pramana i.e. relation of height with their own finger width, they both might be of same Anguli height and both of them might be equally healthy. This shows wherever Anguli Pramana is to be applied, Anguli (one's own finger width) should be used for measurement. In this way the principal of Anguli Pramana, an unique and individualized concept of Ayurveda can be compared to Modern science.
Charaka, Sushruta, Vagbhata have described the Ang-Pratyanga Pramana i.e. dimension of various normal body parts in terms of Anguli. But in today's era before measuring those dimensions, the physician should be aware of the unit "Anguli" in terms of centimetres. While measuring the Ang-Pratyanga Pramana of a person the Average of right and left hand, medio-lateral proximal inter phalangeal joint of middle finger in centimetres should be considered as one Anguli. With the knowledge of Ang-Pratyanga Pramana one can judge whether the concerned body parts are structurally normal or not.
| Conclusion|| |
Anguli Sthana Nishchiti should be done at the site of "Average of right and left hand, medio-lateral proximal interphalangeal joint of middle finger". Measurement of Anguli Pramana at the above site gives more accurate result of Anguli Pramana compared to the, commonest site used today i.e., Average of ChaturAnguli of right and left hand. Anguli Pramana i.e. Measurement of finger width of the examinee and not the examiner, should be considered while studying the Anguli Pramana of the person. The probability of a person of having Sama Sharir (anatomically proportionate body) is more if his or her Aayama and Vistaara are equal. In the present study Vistaara was more than Aayama in maximum number of people. There was partially positive correlation (0.24) between Aayama and Vistaara. Adding up Anguli Pramana is one of the general clinical examination points, which would help the physicians and surgeons to get an idea about the physical health.
| References|| |
|1.||Charaka, Charakasamhita. In: Acharya VS, editor. Vaidya-manorama Hindi commentary. 1 st ed. Vimanasthana, Chapter 8, Delhi, India: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Publication; 2003. p. 11. |
|2.||Sushruta, Sushrutsamhita, with Dalhan. In: Achary YT, editor, Nibandhasangraha commentary. 1 st ed. Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India: Chaukhambha Surabharati Publication; 1994. p. 65. |
|3.||Physical Status: Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry, W.H.O. Technical Report Series. Geneva: W.H.O. Publication Dept.; 1995. p. 1-47. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]