|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 233-234
2013-Diamond jubilee year of research in ayurveda
Executive Editor - AYU, I.P.G.T. and R.A.,Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
|Date of Web Publication||17-Dec-2013|
Executive Editor - AYU, I.P.G.T. and R.A.,Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Nishteswar K. 2013-Diamond jubilee year of research in ayurveda. AYU 2013;34:233-4
"Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored." Aldous Huxley.
Development of any science depends upon its education and research and Ayurvedic medical system is no exception for it. A review of six decades of research and education of Ayurveda clearly indicates a positive metamorphosis towards development of ancient wisdom of Indian health care system.
During pre-independence period the patronage given to Ayurveda was negligible. There were no institutes to train individual in Ayurvedic medicine. One Ayurvedic Patasala also known as "Kashyapapura" was started (in 1889) at east fort, Thiruvananthapuram. In the year 1907 "Nikhil Bharatavarshiya Ayurveda Vidyapeeta" was established and adopted Guru-Shishya tradition to impart education throughout India without including any clinical training. On the recommendation of Usman committee (17 th October, 1921); Government of Madras started school of Indian medicine with 80 bedded hospital in the year 1925. This school was rendering clinical training.  Several states also started colleges to render training in Ayurveda during pre-independence period.
Suggestions made by various committees  (Chopra, Udupa, Pandit) prompted Government of India to start an exclusive research center and the first research center in Ayurveda under the name Central Institute of Research in Indigenous Systems of Medicine (CIRISM) was started in the year 1953 at Jamnagar 60 years back, with an objective of developing Ayurveda in all aspects. 
One of the most productive contributions from this institute was the research on Panduroga conducted way back in 1953 with Ayurvedic hematinic in 758 cases using Punarnavamandoora and Navayasachoorna. Among all the hematinic formulations Punarnavamandoora showed better result. A monograph  was published by Gujarat Ayurved University (first Ayurveda University to be established during 1967) basing on these findings. In the year 1956 first post graduate institute was started with the aim to render training in teaching and research in Ayurveda. The institute since then is carrying research on many diseases namely Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus), Amlapitta (dyspepsia), Sandhivata (osteoarthritis), Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis), Shukradushti (oligospermia), Shwasa (asthma), Sthaulya (obesity), hypertension etc.
Postgraduate center at Banaras Hindu University (BHU) started during 1963 carried out commendable work in standardizing Ksharasutra, which has brought international recognition to Ayurvedic Para-surgical method. In the fundamental research, BHU scholars of Ayurveda explored the concept of Prakriti from biochemical perspectives. The research carried out on Medhyarasayanas is also worth mentioning and the scientific validation for certain drugs such as Ashwagandha, Brahmi, Mandukaparni was produced by this institute. 
Anti-malarial drug AYUSH-64 which was formulated by Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) has been shown to mitigate clinical malaria by disappearance of parasites in peripheral blood on a large sample of population (4227 cases). In animal studies, the drug has been shown to be safe, free from acute and chronic toxicity. It is found to be effective in other diseases such as Filariasis and Giardiasis. 
In addition to Ayurvedic institutes, the other medical research institution namely Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), invited an advisory committee on indigenous drug research in Indian medicinal plants constituted in 1963 under composite drug research scheme and for the first time brought together experts in the Ayurvedic system of medicine and modern medicine (pharmacologists and clinicians) and scientists (botanists and phytochemists) for screening reputed Indian medicinal plants for these biological activity on the basis of their therapeutics claims. The Golden Triangle partnership under a tripartite agreement is among the departments of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa Rigpa and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and ICMR to develop formulations of plant based drugs for identified diseases and this can be considered as the most important development in Ayurvedic research during these years. 
A bird's eye view of research and development of Ayurveda that has taken place from 1953 to 2013 (60 years) indicates some notable achievements, which includes establishments of colleges and institutes (254 colleges as on 2013), research councils for research and education (CCRAS and Central Council of Indian Medicine), drug standardizations institutes (Pharmaceutical Laboratory of Indian Medicine), collaborate research programs (Golden Triangle), pharmacovigilance centers, conduction of toxicity studies of Ayurvedic heavy metal Bhasmas, Board for Medicinal Plants Research (National Medicinal Plants Board [NMPB]), digitalization of data related to ayurveda and traditional medicine (Traditional Knowledge Digital Library, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing), computerization of data relates to publications and clinical trials (Dhara, Rudra, Clinical Trials Registry-India, AYUSH Research Portal), publication of research monographs (by ICMR, CCRAS, NMPB, Rashritya Ayurveda Vidyapeeta (RAV), Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT), publication of Ayurvedic formulary of India and Ayurvedic pharmacopeia of India, collaborative research centers (by World Health Organization, Central Drug Research Institute, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine), publication and editing of manuscripts and Nighantus, training the foreign students (short term and degree courses in ayurveda), conduction of national and international seminars and workshops, introduction of diploma, degree and post graduate courses in Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical sciences and postgraduate courses in medicinal plants, establishment of exclusive Ayurvedic universities (Jamnagar, Jodhpur, Deharadun and Hoshiarpur), expansion of Ayurvedic pharma industry (7494 pharmacies) with good manufacturing practice regulations of Ayurvedic Pharmacies,  standardization of Panchakarma procedures, memorandum of understanding with institutes/universities of foreign countries, publication of international journals (Pub Med indexed), applying for the patents, and a new dimensional research project "Ayurgenomics" about assessment of Prakriti on the basis of genetic studies (carried out at multiple centers throughout India) etc.
Certain diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, viral hepatitis, diabetes mellitus (type II), oligospermia, hypercholesterolemia, insomnia, obesity etc., are well-studied with standard clinical design.  The concept of the ward to laboratory strategy known as reverse pharmacology was incorporated in the ethical guidelines for clinical trials using herbal medicines. In total 2434 and 15131 number of Ayurvedic hospitals and dispensaries are functioning throughout the country respectively.
Despite of all these development currently, research in Ayurveda is thriving hard to produce scientific validation with evidence based documentation. It is observed that in Cochrane Library, which is the most authentic source of systematic review, out of 7864 total reviews only 5 are on Homoeopathy and just one for Ayurveda, as against 14 for Traditional and complementary medicines (TCM). Over more than 3500 papers on Ayurveda in Pub Med include only 15 case series and observational studies. Among case reports published in reputed journals, 79 are concerned about toxicity of Ayurvedic drugs, with practically none on safety and efficacy.  However the method of conduction of research with advanced modern tools has welcomed scientists of other disciplines to participate in research with a more pragmatic approach. This exercise paved the way for identifying the merits of Ayurvedic principles and imparting a feeling of satisfaction that Ayurveda is well recognized by the scientific community. Anyhow, development of Ayurveda during 60 years in terms of research and education is progressive and hope the future researches and implementation of suitable educational reforms strengthen Ayurveda to meet the clinical challenges.
The current issue includes review article on interpretation of dementia from Ayurvedic perspective. Clinical observations of Pandughnivati and Dhartilauhavati in Garbhinipandu and role of Vamana and Virechana in Diabetes mellitus are reported under the category of original articles. Among the pharmacological studies, observations of the immunomodulatory effect of Shirishadi compound and antinociceptive effect of T. Plukentii are quite interesting. In total one review article, nine clinical research papers, two papers on pharmaceutical standardization, seven papers on pharmacological research and a short communication on Haritaki and its varieties are published in this issue.
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