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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 134-142  

A critical review of rhythmic recitation of Charakasamhita as per Chhanda Shastra


Assistant Professor, Department of Maulika Siddhanta, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Web Publication10-Oct-2013

Correspondence Address:
Asit Panja
Assistant Professor, Department of Maulika Siddhanta, National Institute of Ayurveda, Madhav Vilas Palace, Amer Road, Jaipur, Rajasthan - 302 002
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.119665

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   Abstract 

Charakasamhita is one of the most important life lines of Ayurvedic classical knowledge. This supreme text of "science of life" has been composed nearly about 3000 years ago and before the well-established era of documentation. It is composed in the then language, style, and method. The ancient scholars of Ayurveda have presented it in such a way that all three kinds of pupil can get the matter easily. Nearly two thirds of the compendium is shaped in verse form according to rules and regulations of Chhandashastra of classical Sanskrit literature to retain in memory for a long time. With the advent of time this classical practice of recitation has been gradually losing its popularity and as a result the proper Ayurvedic learning cannot be completely possible in the current era. This review consists of methods of rhythmic recitation of all verses of Charakasamhita with notations and classical analysis.

Keywords: Charakasamhita , Chhandashastra, meter, recitation, rhythm


How to cite this article:
Panja A. A critical review of rhythmic recitation of Charakasamhita as per Chhanda Shastra. AYU 2013;34:134-42

How to cite this URL:
Panja A. A critical review of rhythmic recitation of Charakasamhita as per Chhanda Shastra. AYU [serial online] 2013 [cited 2020 Nov 24];34:134-42. Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2013/34/2/134/119665


   Chhanda Top


The Veda is the main source of knowledge for achieving duty (Dharma), wealth (Artha), desire (Kama), and final deliverance (Moksa). The study of the Vedas was divided into 6 different varieties widely known as Vedanga. In early days of Vedic period, study was in the form of oral teaching, and methodical rhythmic recitation was mandatory to keep the purity of text. Rhythmic recitation also helps to develop good memory of the text. Chhanda was given major importance from the very beginning of Vedic era and considered it as a Vedanga. [1] Apart from the classical teaching Chhandas were being used in day to day life to remember the verses of worshiping, and so on. Ayurveda, the science of life, has taken the origin from Vedic wisdom and was transmitted through the same tradition. Majority of the texts of Ayurveda literature are composed in poetry form to remember the subject purely. So, study of meter (Chhanda) is an integral part to study and explore the Ayurveda literature.


   Charakasamhita Top


Charakasamhita is the most authoritative and comprehensive compendium of Ayurvedic knowledge covering almost each and every aspect of health care. This treatise despite being the oldest available literature of Ayurveda (the currently redacted version available is estimated to be documented in 200 BC), is truly a versatile classic. As per composer of the text 12, 000 verses are documented but in presently available Charakasamhita near about 9295 verses are available [2] of which approximately two thirds are in poetic form. These verses are written in various meters.


   Methods of Study Depicted in Charaka Samhita Top


The profounder of Ayurveda had adopted 3 steps of learning, that is, Adhyayana, Adhyapana, and Tadvidyasambhasa[3] as needs of time to continue the streamline flow of Ayurvedic knowledge.

The most preliminary stage of study (Adhyayana) is "Adhigata Karana," [4] that is, grasping and mastering of the text thoroughly. The texts were written mostly in a very concise style known as "Sutra" and in combined form of both prose and verse. Prose is not tightened by Aksara, Matra, Gati, and Yati and on the other hand verse is bound by some rules. The verses were mostly in simple form and were meant to be easy for cramming by the pupils and comprehended in their scope of exposition of a wide range of subjects.

Ancient practice regarding recitation reveals that during study Acharya used to recite one or two Pada of the verse at first methodically pronounced with gradual completion of the rest of the part. Students one after another followed the preceptor blindly reciting the Pada respectively. During this process the main focus was laid on correct pronunciation. [5]

During study the student should be very careful in maintaining the perfectness instructed in the text. [6] He should recite neither too fast; that means the letters, words, quarter verses should not be in close succession and as such indistinct nor too slow, that is, the words, etc., should not be too loosened. He should recite without any hesitation, avoid nasal sounds always, pronounce the letters clearly without compressing them, recite well-refined, nonconfused letter and should read with medium voice not in very high or very low pitch. [7]

Most important aspect of ancient system of education was achievement of oral fluency. [8] The student easily gained oral promptness in the course of study with improvement in their pronunciation and other loops. Sushruta mentioned that the student should make efforts to attain excellence of speech, for successful management of clinical practice.

The next stage was memorization. By repeating the verse in proper methodical rhythm, the students used to store permanently in their memory. The Sutras were studied in different ways, namely, Samhita Patha, Pada Patha, Krama Patha, Jata Patha, Ghana Patha, and so on, for memorization. [9] Samhita Patha is reading of text what it actually is. Pada Patha is reading word by word by breaking Samasa Baddha Pada of main Samhita Patha. Krama Patha, Jata Patha, and Ghana Patha have same Svaravinyas (phonation) but the only specialty is repetition. In Krama Patha the frequency of repetition of each word is twice. In Jata Patha each Pada is being recited thrice or more. In Ghana Patha the frequency of repetition is up to 6 times with a definite sequential rhythm. Hence with the help of glorious methods the Ayurveda literature remains its pure form.


   Importance of Chhanda Jnana for Proper Methodical Study Top


In Vedic period the scholars used to study Ayurveda either after completing the Vedic school or simultaneously. They had to study Chhanda as a Vedanga in their respective Vedic schools. Ancient scholars kept the streamline flow of knowledge by rhythmic recitation for thousands of years even before the era of documentation. With the advent of science many technologies have emerged in the field of education and have given us new dimension of study.

But on account of lack of practice in classical and rhythmic methods of recitation the current Ayurvedic scholars are not being able to make them well versed in their respective Ayurvedic subjects. Hence for regaining the golden spirit of Ayurvedic text-based study, the knowledge and proper method of recitation of Ayurvedic verses on the basis of Chhanda is inevitable as the primary step of learning.

Varieties of Chhanda [10]

A verse consists of 4 parts known as Pada. The governing rules and regulations of meters are concerned with each Pada.

Some meters are composed and ruled by number of letters or Aksaras known as Aksara Chhanda or Varna Chhanda. In Akshara Chhanda only Aksaras are counted, and the assessment of specific Ganas is not required whereas in Matra Chhanda only Matras are measured. Neither Ganas nor Aksaras are assessed, for example, Aupacchhandasika, Vaitaliya, etc., In Aksaragana Chhanda the assessment of both the numbers of Aksara and respective Ganas are inevitable, for example, Indravajra, Malini, etc., Matragana Chhanda is another variety in which both Matra and Ganas (Matra) are assessed (eg, Arya).

Rhythmically, all verses are of 3 types, namely, Samachhanda, Ardhasamachhanda, and Visamachhanda. In Samavrtta Chhanda all 4 Padas contain same numbers of Varna or letters, for example, Indravajra and Vamshastha, whereas in Ardhasamavrtta Chhanda the odd Pada, that is, 1 st and 3 rd Pada are composed of same number of letters and the even Pada 2 nd and 4 th consisted of same number of letters (not similar to Pada 1 st and 3 rd ), for example, Puspitagra, Viyogini. In Visamavrtta Chhanda all 4 Pada are different in terms of letters, for example, Udgata.

Guru and Laghu Varna


Besides associated with Dirgha Svara, such as etc. the following consonants are considered as Guru: [11]



  1. Anusvara Yukta (), that is, associated with Anusvara;
  2. Visarga Yukta (:);
  3. Just before the conjunct; and
  4. Last word of the Pada (Padantaga)


All others are Laghu, including Hrasva Svara. Practically in Shloka Patha one Matra Varna is considered as Hrasva whereas 2 Matras, 3 Matras, and half Matra are counted for Dirgha, Pluta, and Vyanjana, respectively, [12] but only consonants such as and S (Avagraha) , are not considered as Varna.

Matra: Time required for pronunciation of Laghu Aksara is counted as one Matra. Matra of Guru letter is two. [12]

Gana: For making it easy the scholars of Chhanda Shastra have framed different combinations of letters popularly known as Gana. Ganas are framed by a combination of Guru and Laghu Varnas. The characteristics of 8 Ganas are as follows: [13]




   Chhanda in Charakasamhita Top


Thirteen different Chhandas are available in whole Charakasamhita, namely, Anustup, Arya, Indravajra, Indravamsha, Kusumitalatabellita, Puspitagra, Rathoddhata Rucira, Svagata, Upajati, Upendravajra, Vamshastha, and Viyogini.

A brief description of meters along with their examples

Anustup


It is a Varnavrtta Chhanda and usually meant for Sama Chhanda. Its each Pada consists of 8 letters and among them 5 th is always Laghu, whereas 6 th is always Guru and 7 th of even Pada is Laghu and of odd Pada is Guru. Others have no bar. After each Pada there is a slight pause. [14]

According to Acarya Gangadhara, [15] Anustup is of 5 types, namely, Anustup (8, 8, 8, 8), Tripadanustup (8, 8, 8, 0), Puranustup (8, 12, 12, 0), Madhyenustup (12, 8, 12, 0), and Antenustup (12, 12, 8, 0).

Examples



Arya

It is a Matra Chhanda where only Svaras are counted. Guru letter is considered as two Matras and Laghu letter as one. There are 5 different Ganas. Each Gana is composed of 4 Matras. So Ganas may be framed by two Guru Varnas (SS), one Guru and two Laghu (S ǁ, ǀ S ǀ, ǁ S), and four Laghu Varnas. [16]

According to Chhanda Paricaya, it is characterized by 12 Matra in 1 st Pada, 18 Matra in 2 nd Pada, 15 Matra each in 3 rd and 4 th Pada. [17]

There are 5 different groups of Arya, namely, Arya (12, 18, 12, 15), Giti (12, 18, 12, 18), Udgiti (12, 15, 12, 18), Upagiti (12, 15, 12, 15), and Aryagiti (12, 2012, 20).

In other words, each 2 Pada of Arya Chhanda are generally composed of 7 Ganas and a Guru letter. So total Matra is 30. According to the position of above Ganas in different positions of the verse Arya is of 80 types, such as Vipula, Capala, Giti, Udgiti, and so on.

Examples



Indravajra

It is also a Varnavrtta Sama Chhanda and contains 11 letters in each Pada. Each Pada consists of initial and 2 Guru letters. Pause is at the end. [19]

Examples



Indravamsha

It is Varnavrtta Sama Chhanda containing 12 letters in each Pada. Residing Ganas are [21]

Examples



Kusumitalatavellita

It is a Varnavrtta Samachhanda and characterised by 18 letters in each Pada. Components are Pauses are after 5, after 11, and after18, that is Padanta. [23]

Examples



Puspitagra

It is Ardhasama Varna Chhanda containing 13 letters in each even Pada. Whereas each odd Pada is of 12 letters. Each odd Pada composed of On the other hand, and 1 Guru Varna make the even Pada. Pause is at the end. [25]

Examples



Rathoddhata

It is a symmetrical Varna Chhanda and composed of 11 letters in each Pada. The components are a Laghu and a Guru Varna, respectively. Pause is at the end. [27]

Examples



Rucira

Rucira
is a Varnavrtta Samachhanda and characterized by 13 letters. Each Pada is composed of and a Guru Varna. A slight pause is after 4 and then after 9, that is, Padanta. It is also called Atirucira. [28]

Examples



Svagata

It is a symmetrical Varna Chhanda and composed of 11 letters in each Pada. Compositions are and 2 Guru letters. At the end of each Pada there is a slight pause. [30]

Examples



Upajati

It is generally a combination of both Upendravajra and Indravajra. According to their (Upendravajra and Indravajra) position in different Pada Upajati Chhanda is of 14 types, namely, Kirti, Vani, Mala, Shala, and so on. [32] Upajati may be possible with any similar 2 Chhandas, such as Indravamsha with Vamshastha, [33] Svagata with Rathoddhata. [34] Besides mixed types of Upajati is also available like among Vamshastha, Indravajra, and Upendravajra. [35] In this text Upajati only signifies the combination of Indravajra and Upendravajra. Other varieties are marked differently.

Examples



Upendravajra

It is composed of and 2 Guru Varna, respectively. Pause is after the eleventh Varna, that is, Padanta. [37]

Examples



Vamshastha

Each Pada of this Varnavrtta Samachhanda contains 12 letters. Within it 4 Ganas are respectively. Pause is at the end of Pada. [39]

Examples



Viyogini

It is a Varnavrtta Ardhasama Chhanda. Eleven letters of its even Pada is composed of along with one Laghu and a Guru letter. On the other hand, each odd Pada contains 2 and a Guru letter. [41]

Examples




   Discussion Top


Classically the Charakasamhita has been composed in Champu style consisting of both verse and prose. Among the available approximately 9295 verses, nearly two-thirds are in verse form. Among the meter the Anustup is used in maximum instances on account of easy composition and memorization. It also justifies the transmigration of thoughts from Veda as this meter is the only meter available in both Vedic texts and classical texts. In majority of the chapters the summary of that respective chapter has been presented in Anustup, which also suggests the vastness of the meter in common use.

Among the other meters, Upajati in combination with Upendravajra and Indravajra is widely used. A mixed form of Upajati is also found in combination with Indravajra and Shalini, Indravajra and Rathoddhata, Indravajra with Svagata, and Indravajra with Vamsastha (12 letters), which suggests that subject matter is given the first priority above the composition of meter. Some meters, such as Kusumitalatabellita, Ruchira, Viyogini, Indravamsa, Svagata, and Puspitagra, are very rarely used. In order to keep the free flowing of concepts of underlined subject matters, the combination of prose along with verse pattern and combinations of different meters have been done. Rathoddhata have been used in one Pada only in entire Samhita [Table 1].
Table 1: List of Chhanda in Charaka Samhita (in alphabetic order)

Click here to view



   Conclusion Top


The study of Chhanda is an integral part of classical text-based learning. Proper acquaintance of the Samhita is not possible without the adequate knowledge of each and every meter. Hence, proper and logical study of meter according to composition is mandatory in order to recite and memorize the text rhythmically. The aforesaid Chhanda are scientifically analyzed and documented for the onward propagation of classical knowledge.[42]

 
   References Top

1.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 2 (Prastavana).  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Shastri Kashinath Hindi translator, Part 2. 5 th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Samasthan; 1997. p. 1044 (Parisista).  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana, Rogabhishagjitiya Adhyaya, 8/6, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 262.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Prabhashaniya Adhyaya, 4/3, Nibandhasamgraha commentary by Dalhana, Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor, 6 th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1997. p. 17.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Rigveda, 7 th Mandal, Sukta CII, verse 5, The Hymns of the Rigveda, Ralph T. H. Griffith translator. 2 nd ed. Kotagiri (Nilgiri); 1896. p. 292.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana, Rogabhishagjitiya Adhyaya, 8/24, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 266.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Adhyayan Sampradaniya Adhyaya, 3/54, Nibandhasamgraha commentary by Dalhana, Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor, 6 th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1997. p. 16.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Ibidem, Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Adhyayan Sampradaniya Adhyaya, 3/56; 16.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Panja AK. Chandas in Ayurveda Samhita. 1 st ed. Howrah-Kolkata: Prakriti Publisher; 2005. p. 4-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 47-9 (Bhumika).  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Ibidem. Chhanda Shastra, 1/11; 5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Ibidem. Chhanda Shastra, 1/12-13; 6.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Ibidem. Chhanda Shastra, 1/1-8; 2-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Ibidem. Chhanda Shastra, 3/23-25; 18-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Ayurveda-Dipika commentary of Chakrapanidutta and Jalpakalpataru commentary of Gangadhar Roy, Sengupta KJ, Narendranath, Sengupta KJ, Balai Chandra, editors. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Orientalia; 1991. p. 1191-2.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 4/14, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 47-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Apte VS. The Practical -Sanskrit English Dictionary. New Delhi: Motilala Banarasi Das; 2006. p. 1042.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Trishnachikitsa Adhyaya, 22/16, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 568  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 6/15, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 116.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Aargvadhiya Adhyaya, 3/9, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 28  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 6/29, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 138.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Snehadhyaya, 13/11, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 82  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 7/21, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 162.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Shvayathu Chikitsa Adhyaya, 12/20, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 484.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 5/41, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 97.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana, Rogabhishagjitiya Adhyaya, 8/155, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 286.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 6/22, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 134.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Ibidem. Chhanda Shastra, 7/2; 147.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana, Rogabhishagjitiya Adhyaya, 8/156, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 286.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 6/23, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 134.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Nidana Sthana, Gulma Nidana Adhyaya, 3/17, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 211.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 6/17, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 119.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, sharira sthana, Jatisutriya Adhyaya, 8/68, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 352.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Ibidem. Charaka Samhita, Siddhi Sthana, Phala Matra Siddhi Adhyaya, 11/16; p. 728.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, Adhyayan Raktapitta Pratishedh Adhyaya, 45/31, Nibandhasamgraha commentary by Dalhana, Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor, 6 th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1997. p. 736.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Ashtouninditiya Adhyaya, 21/58, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 119.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 6/16, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 118.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Abhaya-Aamalakiya Adhyaya, Rasayan Padam, 1/1/74, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 379  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Pingala, Chhanda Shastra, 6/28, Mritasanjibani commentry of Halayudh; Pt. Kedarnath, editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsthan; 2002. p. 137.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Gulma Chikitsa Adhyaya, 5/17, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 426.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Apte VS. The Practical -Sanskrit English Dictionary. New Delhi: Motilala Banarasi Das; 2006. p. 1041.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Agnivesh, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Siddhi Sthana, Phala Matra Siddhi Adhyaya, 11/12, Ayurveda Depika Commentry by Chakrapanidutta, Pt. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya editor. New Delhi: Rastriya Sanskrit Samsasthan; 2006. p. 727.  Back to cited text no. 42
    



 
 
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