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PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 412-417  

Pharmaceutical study of Triguna and Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja


1 PhD Scholar, Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana including Drug Research, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana including Drug Research, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
3 Professor and Head, Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana including Drug Research, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
4 Head, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
5 Director, Research and Development, SDM College of Ayurveda, Kuthpady, Udupi, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication16-Mar-2013

Correspondence Address:
Shraddha N Dhundi
Ph. D. Scholar, Department of RS and BK, I.P.G.T and R.A, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.108856

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   Abstract 

Makaradhwaja is a herbo-minaral drug prepared by Kupipakwa method. In the present study Makaradhwaja was prepared by Triguna and Shadguna Balijarana using Ashtasamskarita Parada. Total five batches of Triguna Makaradhwaja (TM) were prepared by taking 330 g of Kajjali in each batch, average product obtained was 29.12 g. In the preparation of Shadguna Makaradhwaja (SM) too, five batches were prepared, taking 250 g of Kajjali, average product obtained was 16.8 g. The average time taken for flame in TM was 3.01 h and that in SM was 4.58 h. Kupipaka was carried out for 18 and 36 h in TM and SM, respectively. Inductive Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) revealed the presence of 7.2976 ppm gold in TM, whereas 663.14 ppm in SM.

Keywords: Ashtasamskarita Parada, Parada, Balijarana, Makaradhwaja, Murcchana


How to cite this article:
Dhundi SN, Patgiri B, Prajapati PK, Shukla VJ, Ravishankar B. Pharmaceutical study of Triguna and Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja. AYU 2012;33:412-7

How to cite this URL:
Dhundi SN, Patgiri B, Prajapati PK, Shukla VJ, Ravishankar B. Pharmaceutical study of Triguna and Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja. AYU [serial online] 2012 [cited 2020 Oct 25];33:412-7. Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2012/33/3/412/108856


   Introduction Top


Makaradhwaja [1] is a type of Galastha[2] (product sublimed at the neck of glass bottle), Sagandha (having sulfur as a component), Rasa Murcchana[3] (a compound formulation having processed mercury as a ingredient) prepared by Kupipakwa method [4] (gradual heating of mixture of drugs in glass bottle), adopting two references [for Triguna Makaradhwaja (TM) and Shadguna Makaradhwaja (SM)] of Bhaishajya Ratnavali[5],[6] by a very specialized heating system, that is, Kramagni[7] (subsequent increasing temperature) manner by vertical Electrical Muffle Furnace (EMF), [8] which is a modification of Valuka Yantra. [9] Triguna and Shadguna Balijarana were carried out using Ashtasamskarita Parada (processed mercury) [Figure 1]. Jarana is a process in which Parada consumes Swarna, etc., by various processes with heat through Vida, Valuka, and Kacchapa Yantra. It means after distillation and straining, the consumed substance like Abhraka (mica), Swarna (gold), etc., does not remains distinct and Parada remain in its preceding state and its weight also does not change. [10] A specific process after which Parada is used for therapeutic purposes is known as Parada Murcchana. [11] It is a process in which Parada with or without Gandhaka is converted into suitable compound, which is classified in to Sagandha Murcchana (processed with Gandhaka) and Nirgandha Murcchana (processed without Gandhaka). [12] The Sagandha Murcchita Yogas are widely used in therapeutics due to their least toxicity and high potency. Kajjali, Rasaparpati, Rasagarbha Pottali, Hemagarbha Pottali, Rasasindura, Makaradhwaja, etc., are the examples of this process. Rasa classics claims that, Parada (mercury) treated with Gandhaka (sulphur) becomes highly potentiated, that is, acquire many pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It is further believed in these contexts that the potentiation of Parada depends on the proportion of Gandhaka burnt in Jarana process. The textual references also support the above statement and according to this Shadguna Balijarita Parada is claimed to be much more powerful and effective than Samaguna or Dwiguna Balijarita Parada. [13] In addition, many texts claim that without Shadguna Gandhaka Jarana, Parada does not acquire the power of curing diseases. [14]
Figure 1: Ashtasamskarita Parada

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Preparations which are primed in Kachakupi with a specific heating pattern in Valuka Yantra are termed as Kupipakwa. Initially these were carried out in Sharava and Musha[15] in context of Parada Bhasma. But in later period of Rasaprakash Sudhakara, that is, from 14 th century onwards, it was modified with the use of Kachakupi (glass bottle). Kupipakwa Rasayana Kalpana is unique, due to its preparation method, properties like quick action, Rasayana (rejuvenator and revitalizer), Yogavahi (promoting) and effective in smaller dosage along with long shelf life. Hence, here with the help of three and six times of sulfur in proportion to Ashtasamskarita Parada, [16] TM, and SM were prepared to judge the importance of Jarana.


   Materials and Methods Top


Collection of raw material

Ashuddha Gandhaka (raw sulfur), Ashuddha Parada (raw mercury) were initially procured from Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar and authenticated. Kumari (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) was collected from periphery of Jamnagar and fresh Panchanga (whole plant) and especially flowers of Rakta Karpasa (Gossypium arboreum Linn.) were collected from Bijapur, Karnataka and authenticated in the Pharmacognosy Laboratory, I.P.G.T. and R.A. Jamnagar.

Ashtasamskaras of Parada, Shodhana of Gandhaka, [17] preparation of Rakta Karpasa Pushpa Swarasa (flower juice) and Kumari Swarasa (aloe juice) were carried out as per classical references. The products were analyzed for Inductive Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPOES) for their minor chemical constituents. The maker of instrument was CPA Ltd. Bulgaria (Model-Optima 3300 RL).

Preparation of Makaradhwaja

The whole process was carried out in four stages:

Preparation of Swarna Pishti

The measured quantity of Ashtasamskarita Parada was taken in Simaka Khalva Yantra (mortar-pestle) then Swarna Varkha (gold foils) [Figure 2] was added to it and trituration process was carried out till the formation of Swarna Pishti (amalgam) [Figure 3].
Figure 2: Swarna Varkha

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Figure 3: Swarna Pishti

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Preparation of Kajjali

Previously prepared Swarna Pishti was taken in Simaka Khalva Yantra then Shuddha Gandhaka [Figure 4] was added to it in prescribed quantity followed by trituration process till the formation of Kajjali. This process was carried out in eight batches for Triguna Kajjali (TK) and three batches in Shadguna Kajjali (SK)[Figure 5].
Figure 4: Shuddha Gandhaka

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Figure 5: Preparation of Kajjali

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Bhavana

Respective Bhavanas (levigation) of Rakta Karpasa Pushpa Swarasa and Kumari Swarasa were given to both the Kajjali [Figure 6].
Figure 6: Levigation of Makaradhwaja Kajjali

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Kupipaka

The Bhavita Kajjali was filled in seven layers mud smeared cloth (Kapadamitti) Kacha Kupi for respective batches through funnel. Kupi were kept in EMF and Kramagni was given for 18 h to TK and 36 h to SK. After disappearance of the flame confirmative tests like red hot bottom, Sheeta Shalaka test, coin test were carried out and corking was done. Kupi were left for self cooling and on the next day the Kupi were taken out of EMF for collection of products, which were kept in air tight container [Figure 7].
Figure 7: Placement of filled Kupi in EMF

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   Observations and Results Top


In preparation of TM by Shuddha Swarna Varkha (gold foils of processed gold), Ashtasamskarita Parada (Parada after eight specific processes - in which initial five are purificatory and last three are potentiating in nature).

Out of four batches, total 669.5 g of Swarna Pishti was procured. The total 669.5 g of Pishti and 1800g of Shudha Gandhaka was added and trituration was carried out to procure 2425.8 g of TK 39 g loss in weight of Kajjali was observed. The TK was further processed for sequential Bhavanas of Rakta Karpasa Pushpa Swarasa (fresh juice of flowers of Gossypium arboreum Linn.) and Kumari Swarasa [Table 1]. Overall 62 g of weight gain of Kajjali, that is, 2.70% was observed after Bhavana process.
Table 1: Brief observational profile of consequent Bhavana of Triguna Makaradhwaja Kajjali

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For the preparation of Kajjali of Shadguna [Table 2], 833.1 g of TK and 600 g Gandhaka (i.e., three times Gandhaka to the weight of Parada) was added and trituration was done. After SK Nirmana, the prescribed Bhavana of Rakta Karpasa Pushpa Swarasa and Kumari Swarasa were given. Finally 1420.1 g of SK with 13 g of weight loss, that is, 0.93% was procured.
Table 2: Observations during preparation of Shadguna Kajjali with Bhavanas

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TM is prepared in five subsequent batches of 330 g of TK with 18 h of Kramagni Paka (increasing heating system). Similarly SM is prepared in five subsequent batches of 250 g of SK with 36 h of Kramagni Paka.

The pharmaceutical preparation of TM [Table 3] and that of SM [Table 4], the flame lasted averagely in TM for 3.01 h and in SM for 4.58 h [Chart 1] [Additional file 1], [Figure 8]. Average TM obtained was 29.12 g, percentage of TM was 8.83 g, [Figure 9], [Figure 10] whereas average SM obtained was 16.8 g, [Figure 10], [Figure 11] and [Figure 12] percentage of SM was 6.59% [Chart 2], [Chart 3] [Additional file 2].
Figure 8: Flaming stage of Kupi

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Figure 9: Finished product of Triguna Makaradhwaja

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Figure 10: Triguna Makaradhwaja after trituration

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Figure 11: Finished product of Shadaguna Makaradhwaja

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Figure 12: Shadguna Makaradhwaja after trituration

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Table 3: Mean observations during Kupipaka of Triguna Makaradhwaja (Batch I-V)

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Table 4: Mean observations during Kupipaka of Shadguna Makaradhwaja (Batch I-V)

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Organoleptic analysis showed that both products were tasteless, the color of TM as reddish brown and of SM as reddish chocolate brown after vigorous trituration, both were odorless, and in touch outer surface was smooth and inner side was rough crystalline.

The physicochemical analysis of two of the Kajjalis and both finished products revealed that, moisture content [18] of TK and SK were 0.35 and 0.008, whereas that of TM and SM was same as 0.0009 for both. Ash values [19] of previous four entities were 26.38, 26.43, 0.4, and 0.35, respectively [Table 5].
Table 5: Physicochemical parameters of 4 samples

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The ICPOES study sample of TM confirmed the presence of 7.2976 ppm (particle per million) of gold, whereas the amount of gold achieved in SM was 663.14 ppm, which was remarkably many folds higher than TM [Table 6].
Table 6: Results of inductive coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry analysis of Triguna and Shadguna Makaradhwaja

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   Discussion Top


The Siddhabheshajamanimala appreciated seven qualities of Makaradhwaja (Chandrodaya Rasa[20] ) as it should have gold as a constituent, it should be enlightened or shining in night, it should show color of rising sun, which is settled in the bottom of Kupi, which is very pleasant, soft and should possess all the qualities for which it is appreciated.

The change in color of Triguna to SM can be justified by the reason that the amount of Gandhaka used and time taken for preparation of SM than TM was exactly double and it might also be due to the formation of polysulfide compound, which is relevant with procurement of darker product.

In comparing the ash value of both Kajjalis of TM and SM with the finished product. The value decreased from 26.38 to 0.4 in TM and from 26.43 to 0.35 [Table 5] in SM, which shows existence of comparatively loose bonds in Kajjali and compact bonds in TM and SM.

ICPOES is an instrument useful for measuring higher concentrations of individual ingredients as far as herbo-mineral or metalo-mineral compound formulations are concerned.

Apart from presence of gold, lead, copper, and iron were also detected in ppm levels in both the samples, namely, TM and SM. Quantity of gold present in TM (7.2976 ppm) was far below the levels reported [21] (268 ppm), although it is nearly equal to the levels reported initially (7.65 ppm). It is to be noted that in first case [21] TM had been prepared from Hingulottha Parada, whereas in other works [8] done it was prepared from by Ashtasamskarita Parada and Dwiguna Balijarana from Patra of Swarna. In the present work, Makaradhwaja was prepared by Ashtasamskarita Parada and subsequently Triguna and Shadguna Balijarana were carried out with Swarna Varkha.

Majority of the works had done initially signify the presence of gold in the sublimated product. Recent work carried out in 2009 had concluded that if Makaradhwaja is prepared by least particle size of elemental gold, gold content increases in the finished product. [21]

Copper was present in both the samples, 4.2019 ppm in TM and 13.154 ppm in SM. This is due to incorporation of Tamra during Urdhwapatana Samskara of Parada. In addition, presence of iron was also seen [Table 5]. It may be due to the utilization of Ushna Shalaka during the later stages of Kupi Paka. Moreover, for Tiryaka Patana Samskara, iron instruments were used. Trituration of Kajjali in iron mortar and pestle may also be the possible reasons. Previously the presence of trace elements in Rasasindoora to the roots of Ficus benghalensis[22] had been accredited, in Swarasa of whose it was triturated. This may also be possible in this case too. Karpasa Pushpa Swarasa (media for levigation) may have iron contents in it. Lead was also present in traces in both the samples (TM - 0.8951 ppm and SM - 51.576 ppm). Cross contamination from adjacent formulations or possibly leaded water used for Prakshalana (washing) during processing may also be a source of contamination.

Further, in the present work, SM showed presence of 663.14 ppm of gold in the sublimated product. By far the research works concerned on Makaradhwaja; this is the highest percentage of gold reported till date. This further supports the conclusion of prior resercher [21] as Swarna Varkha was used in the preparation. Duration of trituration of Swarna Pishti, duration of Paka (Madhyamagni and Tivragni, at the time of sublimation) and to a certain extent, errors in sample preparation may be the reasons for low quantity of gold reported in TM. Proper trituration of the amalgamated mass ensures proper interaction of gold with Parada. [23] As per Parada Vijaniyam, Makaradhwaja prepared over longer duration of Paka are postulated to have more gold content, [24] which was supported by ppm values of gold in present study SM as it was prepared in 36 h in comparison to TM, which was prepared in 18 h. Improper sublimation of the final product may also be one of the reasons.


   Conclusion Top


The duration of heat and amount of sulfur are directly proportional to therapeutic efficacy. At the same time the amount of gold to be sublimated with the product in ppm level is unswervingly proportional to the Balijarana, which may help to increase the remedial value.


   Acknowledgment Top


The authors are thankful to the administration of Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar for support.

 
   References Top

1.Shalinath, Rasamanjiri, 6/277-287, Siddhiprada hindi commentary by Siddhi Nandana Mishra. 2 nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2003. p. 118-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Dwivedi VM. Parada Vigyaniyam, 3 rd ed. Varanasi: Sharma Ayurveda Mandira; 1997. chap. 6. p. 242.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Madhava Upadhyaya, Ayurveda Prakash, 1/137, Arthavabodhini Sanskrit commentary, Suspashtavabodhini hindi commentary by Gururaj Sharma Mishra, Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharti Academy; 2007. p. 81.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Badhe J, Sharma H. A study of Rasasindura with varying proportion of sulphur. MD dissertation, Dept of RS and BK, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar.1985. p. 486.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Shrigovindadasasena, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, 74/108-117, Siddhiprada hindi Commentary by Siddhi Nandan Mishra, Reprint ed. Vajikaranadhikara. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan; 2007. p. 1135.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Ibidem, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, 5/1217, p. 194.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Dhunduknath, Rasendra Chintamani, Siddhiprada hindi commentary by Siddhi Nandan Mishra, Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia Publication Prayogika; 2006. 8/21, p. 112.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Prajapati PK, Dube GP, Prakash B, Pande DB, Kumar M. Pharmaceutical and experimental studies of Makaradhwaja, MD dissertation, Dept of Rasashastra, BHU, Varanasi. 1994.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Somadeva, Rasendra Chudamani, Hindi Commentary of Rameshwar Dayal Vajpeyi, 1 st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Acadamy; 2004. 5/71, p. 63.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Madhava Upadhyaya, Ayurveda Prakash, 1/107, Arthavabodhini Sanskrit commentary, Suspashtavabodhini hindi commentary by Gururaj Sharma Mishra, Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharti Academy; 2007. p. 63.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Sadanada Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, translated by Shri Kashinatha Shastri, 11 th ed. Vol 6/1. New Delhi: Motilala Banarsidas; 2004. p. 102.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Joshi D. Mercury in Indian Medicine, Studies in History of Medicine. 1979. p. 242.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Madhava Upadhyaya, Ayurveda Prakash, 1/118-120, Arthavabodhini Sanskrit commentary, Suspashtavabodhini hindi commentary by Gururaj Sharma Mishra, Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharti Academy; 2007. p. 69.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Sadanada Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, 6/101, translated by Shri Kashinatha Shastri, 11 th ed., vol. 6/1. New Delhi: Motilala Banarsidas; 2004. p. 108.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Rasarnavam, 15/63, Rasachandrika Hindi commentary of Indradev Tripathi. Dixit K, editor. 4 th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series; 2001. p. 212.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Govindapadacharya, Rasahridaya Tantram, Mugdhavabodhini Hindi commentary of Chaturbhuja Mishra, 3 rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Publications; 2005. 2/1-20, p. 20-35.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Rasavagbhata, Rasaratnasamucchaya, 3/20, Vijyanabodhini commentary of Datatraya Ananta Kulkarni, Reprint ed., New Delhi: Meherchanda Lachamandas Publications; 2007. p. 45.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Anonymus, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1, Vol. I, 1 st ed. Appendix-2, Ministry of health and family welfare, Govt. of India. New Delhi, 1999. p. 214.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Ibidem, API Part I, Vol 1. p. 213.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Bhatta K. Siddhabheshajamanimala, 5/42-43, Vishakha Hindi Commentary of R Kaladhara Bhatta, 3 rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2003. p. 365.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Khedekar S, Patgiri BJ, Ravishankar B, Prajapati PK. Standard manufacturing process of Makaradhwaja (Triguna) prepared by Swarna Patra- Varkha and Bhasma. AYU 2011;32:109-15.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
22.Singh SK. Preparation and Characterization of mercury based Indian traditional Drug - Ras- Sindoora. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2009;8:346-51.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Rasavagbhata, Rasaratnasamucchaya, 8/8, Vijyanabodhini commentary of Datatraya Ananta Kulkarni, Reprint ed., New Delhi: Meherchanda Lachamandas Publications; 2007. p. 145.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Dwivedi VM. Parada Vigyaniyam, Datiya, Zhasi. 3 rd ed. Varanasi, Nagpur: Sharma Ayurveda Mandira; 1997. p. 211.  Back to cited text no. 24
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]


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