|Year : 2010 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 147-152
Evaluation of some objective parameters for Ushna and Sheeta Gunas based on pharmacological study
Santosh Mane1, Mahesh Vyas1, B Ravishankar2, RR Dwivedi1
1 Department of Basic Principles, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurved, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurved, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
|Date of Web Publication||10-Nov-2010|
C/o Kiran Patel, 24-A, Sardarkunj Society, Shahapur Bahai Center, Shahapur, Ahmedabad - 380001, Gujarat
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
In the formation of a principle, the experimental study plays a pivotal role. After repeated experiments under the same conditions, if one finds the same results, then a principle is formed. Ayurvedic principles which were formulated on the basis of keen observations and through special senses need to be reassessed through contemporary scientific tools. The principles of Ushna (hot) and Sheeta (cold) Gunas (properties) need to be assessed and evaluated through various animal experiments so as to suggest parameters which can be suitable for the evolution of these Gunas. The present study is an attempt to find out the possibility of employing simple experimental parameters to assess these Gunas in selected drug substances and the data generated through this study were analyzed. The obtained results are encouraging to develop the same. All details are presented in this paper.
Keywords: Parameters, Sheeta Guna, Ushna Guna
|How to cite this article:|
Mane S, Vyas M, Ravishankar B, Dwivedi R R. Evaluation of some objective parameters for Ushna and Sheeta Gunas based on pharmacological study. AYU 2010;31:147-52
|How to cite this URL:|
Mane S, Vyas M, Ravishankar B, Dwivedi R R. Evaluation of some objective parameters for Ushna and Sheeta Gunas based on pharmacological study. AYU [serial online] 2010 [cited 2021 Feb 26];31:147-52. Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2010/31/2/147/72368
| Introduction|| |
Pharmacology is the science of drugs in a broad sense; it deals with the interaction of exogenously administered chemical molecules (drug) with living systems and pharmacodynamics is one of its branches, which includes physiological and biochemical effects of drugs and their mechanism of action at macromolecular level or subcellular or organ system levels. This same definition of pharmacodynamics can be incorporated with that of Gunas as the effects of Gunas are recognized by their action on the body, i.e. physiological variations. These types of variations are always studied under controlled conditions like environment, daily intake of diets and drinks, sleep, etc., which are more appropriate for clinical study, but not possible, even in the hospital attached institute. On the other hand, almost all the above conditions can be met through animal experiments. Moreover, experimental research has been preferred and extensively used in the biomedical field, so it is considered better than observational type of research. Hence, this study was carried out with the following aims and objectives: 1) to assess the effect of Ushna (hot) and Sheeta (cold) Gunas (properties) through various animal experiments and 2) some attempts are made to suggest parameters which would be suitable for the evolution of the above Gunas, with the help of results obtained and from the data generated.
| Materials and Methods|| |
All the drugs mentioned in the table below were used separately as a test drug [Table 1].
The study was carried out in Wistar albino rats of either sex, breed, and they were maintained under the ideal animal husbandry conditions in the animal house attached to pharmacology laboratory, I.P.G.T. & R.A. They were maintained on Pranava Agro industries, Vadodara, Gujarat "Amrut" brand rat pellet feed and tap water given ad libitum. The animals were exposed to natural day and night cycles. The experiments were carried out after obtaining permission from Institutional Animal Ethical committee.
Procurement of test drugs
The drugs having good quality and genuineness were supplied in a powder form by the pharmacy attached with I.P.G.T. & R.A., Jamnagar, India Selected powdered drugs were made into suspension in distilled water and administered to the respective groups.
The dose of drug was fixed by extrapolating the human dose to rats on body surface area ratio as per the table of Paget's and Barnes.  Human dose of Chitrak is 4 g/day, conversion factor for rat = 4000 mg Χ 0.018; therefore, dose for 200 g rat = 72 mg and for 1 kg rat = 72 5 = 360 mg/kg body weight. The human dose for the remaining five drugs (Ativisha, Yavanee, Gokshur, Musta and Usheer) is 6 g/day, conversion factor for rat = 6000 mg Χ 0.018; therefore, dose for 200 g rat = 108 mg and for 1 kg rat = 108 Χ 5= 540 mg/kg body weight.
Route of administration
The drugs were administered orally through a gastric catheter sleeved on to a syringe.
This study was carried out to fulfill the aim, i.e. evaluation of Deepan and Paachan activities of selected drugs having Ushna and Sheeta Guna dominance in albino rats. The experiment was originally designed by Dr. U. D. Dixit, Prof. R. R. Dwivedi and Dr. B. Ravishankar in 1995 to asses the effect of test drugs on status of Agni. In the present study, same model was adopted with marginal modification. The protocol of the experiment was designed by observing the effect of treated groups on the following five factors:
- food consumption
- fecal output
- food conversion ratio
- water intake
- weight gain
A total of seven groups, each containing six rats of either sex, weighing between 200 and 250 g, were used. Experiment was performed in two phases.
phase I: preliminary study (duration 5 days)
phase II: therapeutic study (duration 10 days)
Preliminary study was carried out prior to the therapeutic study to understand and obtain baseline data about the normal quantity of food and water intake of the experimental animals.
Initial weights of the rats were recorded and the rats were placed in separate metabolic cages. Metabolic cages had special arrangements for keeping food and placing water, which prevented admixture of food with fecal matter. As the urine was drained out, the fecal matter could be collected easily from the cages. In this phase, food intake, water intake, fecal output and food conversion ratio (FCR) were measured on a routine basis. The procedure was continued up to 5 days. After the completion of the preliminary study, body weights were measured again. In this particular phase, drug was not administered.
In this phase, the animals were administered the selected drugs as per the calculated doses. All the previously mentioned parameters were recorded daily for 10 consecutive days; the final weights of the rats were recorded at the end.
Assessment of parameters
Method of estimation of food consumption
Each rat was provided 40 g dry pellet per day to ensure maximum food consumption according to its capacity. The residual food was collected on the next day and weighed. The total amount of food consumed by an animal in 24 hours was obtained by deduction of the remaining food from the allotted 40 g. This was the absolute value of food consumed in grams. Food consumed in g% of body weight per day was calculated by applying the rule of 3. This is the relative food value of food consumption.
Method of estimation of water consumption
Exactly 100 ml of tap water was provided to each rat in a labeled bottle every day and the water remaining in each bottle was noted down on the next day. Total amount of water intake in animal was calculated by the deduction of the remaining water in the feeding bottle from 100 ml. Method similar to the one described above was adopted to calculate the water intake in ml% of the bodyweight/day.
Method of estimation of weight of fecal matter
The total fecal matter passed by each individual rat was collected separately and kept in an oven at 80°C for 6 hours. Weight of dry fecal matter was then calculated in an electronic balance. Stool passed in g% of body weight per day was obtained by applying rule of 3. This is defined as relative weight of fecal matter.
Method of obtaining the food conversion ratio
Method I: The food consumed by a rat in grams/day was divided by the amount of fecal matter passed in grams during the same day in a particular rat. This is taken as absolute conversion ratio (FCR).
Method II: The gram percentage of food consumed by a rat was divided by the gram percentage of the fecal matter passed on the same day by that particular rat. This is defined as relative FCR.
Method of estimation of total assimilation
The difference in the body weight before and after therapy indicates the total assimilation of food into body as a result of metabolic activity influencing the effect of therapy.
| Observation and Results|| |
Mean value (with SE) of each group was calculated accordingly and data generated were compared with the control group as well as data obtained during the preliminary study of the respective groups.
Effect of Ushna Gunayukta drugs on food consumption
When the data were expressed as absolute values, an apparent increase in food consumption was observed in all the groups when the values of initial pre-drug period were compared to those of post-drug period. However, this increase was found to be statistically significant only with respect to Chitraka administered group. When between-group comparisons were made, no significant difference could be observed. When the data were presented as relative food consumption, an apparent decrease in food consumption was observed in the test drug administered group and an apparent increase was observed in the control group. However, the observed changes were found to be statistically nonsignificant [Table 2].
|Table 2 :Effect of test drugs (Ushna Gunayukta drugs) on food consumption in rats |
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Effect of Sheeta Gunayukta drugs on food consumption
When the data were presented as absolute values, an apparent increase in food consumption was observed in control rats and Musta and Usheer administered groups, whereas an apparent decrease was observed in Gokshur administered group. However, the observed changes were found to be statistically nonsignificant. When the data were presented as relative values, an apparent marginal increase was observed in the control group and marginal to moderate decrease was observed in the three test drug administered groups. However, the observed changes were found to be statistically nonsignificant [Table 3].
|Table 3 :Effect of test drugs (Sheeta Gunayukta drugs) on food consumption in rats |
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Effect of Ushna Gunayukta drugs on water consumption
When the data were considered in terms of absolute values, nonsignificant increase in water intake was observed in control and Ativisha groups, while a marginal decrease was observed in Chitraka and Yavanee groups. When the data were presented as relative values, a nonsignificant decrease was observed in both control and test drug administered groups. This indicates that the Ushna property drug does not influence water consumption to a significant extent [Table 4].
|Table 4 :Effect of test drugs (Ushna Gunayukta drugs) on water intake in rats |
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Effect of Sheeta Gunayukta drugs on water consumption
When the data were presented in terms of absolute values, nonsignificant increase in water intake was observed in Gokshur group and control group, whereas a nonsignificant decrease was observed in Musta and Usheer groups. When the data were presented as relative values, a nonsignificant decrease was observed in all the groups, including control group [Table 5].
|Table 5 :Effect of test drugs (Sheeta Gunayukta drugs) on water intake in rats |
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Effect of Ushna Gunayukta drugs on fecal output
A nonsignificant increase in fecal output was observed in all the groups, including control group, when the data were presented in terms of absolute values. But, when the data were presented as relative values, a nonsignificant decrease was observed in Chitrak and Yavanee groups and an increase in Ativisha and control groups [Table 6].
|Table 6 :Effect of test drugs (Ushna Gunayukta drugs) on fecal output in rats |
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Effect of Sheeta Gunayukta drugs on fecal output
When the data were presented as absolute values, an apparent but statistically nonsignificant increase was observed during post-drug period in comparison to pre-drug period. When the data were presented as relative values, only a marginal increase was observed in most of the groups, with none of the differences being statistically significant [Table 7].
|Table 7 :Effect of test drugs (Sheeta Gunayukta drugs) on fecal output in rats |
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Effect of Ushna Gunayukta drugs on food conversion ratio
In control group, a moderate but statistically nonsignificant increase in food conversion was observed. In test drug administered group, an apparent weak to moderate decrease was observed. The decrease was 13.24% in Citraka treated group, 29.04% in Ativisha treated group and 7.7% in Yavanee treated group. However, the observed decrease did not reach statistically significant level [Table 8].
Effect of Sheeta Gunayukta drugs on food conversion ratio
In the control group, an apparent but statistically nonsignificant decrease in food conversion was observed. In Gokshur administered group, a marginal increase was observed, while in the remaining two groups, a nonsignificant marginal decrease was observed [Table 9].
Effect of Ushna Gunayukta drugs on body weight
The data depict an apparent but statistically nonsignificant decrease in actual changes in the body weight of albino rats treated with test drugs having Ushna property in comparison to the control group [Table 10].
|Table 10 :Effect of test drugs (Ushna Gunayukta drugs) on body weight in rats |
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Effect of Sheeta Gunayukta drugs on body weight
The Gokshur treated group shows a marked but statistically nonsignificant decrease in body weight in comparison to control group. However, an opposite effect was observed with the other Sheeta property drugs, i.e. Musta and Usheer, in comparison to control group, but was found to be statistically nonsignificant [Table 11].
|Table 11 :Effect of test drugs (Sheeta Gunayukta drugs) on body weight in rats |
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| Discussion|| |
Food intake and food conversion ratio
Increased food intake is indicative of increased Deepan property, whereas enhanced FCR is indicative of Paachan property. Based on the available concepts, it is assumed that Ushna Guna is responsible for augmentation of Deepan a and Paachan,  and Sheeta Guna has the opposite effect, i.e. drugs with Sheeta Guna are likely to show diminished Deepan and Paachan. If the obtained data of test drugs are considered in toto, it is observed that out of the three Ushna drugs, two produced increase in food intake and one (Yavanee) produced decrease in food intake which was nonsignificant. The three Sheeta drugs, on the other hand, were found to increase the food intake. Deepan property is associated with an increase in appetite, but does not help in digestion.  The drug which possesses the Ushna Guna, property of Tejamahabhoota and also has dominancy of Vayumahabhoota shows Deepan activity.  The intake of food depends upon desire for it and its requirement.  It means that it is influenced by psychosomatic factor; appearance and smell of food is enough for stimulation of the digestive secretion. In the present study, all the drugs, except Yavanee, showed increase in food intake. This clearly is suggestive of the fact that on the basis of food consumption it would be difficult to determine whether the test drug has Ushna or Sheeta property. This issue needs further consideration of different factors. Important among them is the constitution (Prakruti) of the subjects (in this case, rats). Since no attempt was made to categorize them on the basis of constitution, an important aspect of Ayurvedeeya concept  could not be taken into consideration. The second factor is related to seasonal influence. This aspects needs to be considered in future studies. This kind of studies may be required to be undertaken in different seasons. Even within the season it has to be determined whether the study has to be undertaken in the beginning, middle or end of the season. Another important consideration is the possible change in the configuration of the drug attribute in the body after absorption, i.e. after the bio-transformation of the drugs in the body (Paachan).
Paachan property is concerned with assimilation of digested food into body constituents. Any change in it will be reflected in the change in FCR and body weight. In the present study, drugs of Ushna group produced weak to moderate decrease in food conversion, indicating influence on the Paachan property. Among the three, Ativisha produced maximum reduction (29.04%), Chitraka showed 13.24% decrease and mild decrease was observed in Yavanee treated group (7.7%). Though the changes were not statistically significant, it has to be kept in mind that whereas an increase was observed in the control group, a decrease was observed in test drug administered group.
In Sheeta Guna group of drugs, the results were inconsistent; marginal increase was observed in Gokshur administered group and a marginal decrease in the remaining two groups. This is suggestive of the fact that Paachan may not be entirely dependent upon the Ushna and Sheeta Gunas of the drug. Other attributes may also be contributing to the observed effect. Another possibility that needs to be considered is that though the drugs have Sheeta Guna attribute, there may be quantitative differences. On the basis of the available evidence, it can be suggested that FCR may be employed to Ushna Guna, especially in drugs which have higher magnitude of Ushna Guna. However, this parameter may not be useful for the assessment of Sheeta Guna.
For determining the Paachan property along with food conversion, the body weight gain is also considered. The drug which enhances Paachan should produce increased rate of body weight gain in comparison to the control group, and the body weight is decreased with the drugs which diminish Paachan. If we analyze the result related to body weight, normal rate of body weight gain was observed in the control group. In Ushna group of drugs also, body weight gain was observed in comparison to initial weight. However, the magnitude of increase was lesser in comparison to the control group. In the control group, body weight gain was 12.89%, in Chitrak treated group it was 09.84%, and in Ativisha administered group it was found to be 09.66%. In Yavanee group, it was just marginally lesser than control, being 12.61%. This shows that there is some correlation between body weight gain and Ushna property. Similarly, the body weight gain of Sheeta Guna drugs in Musta administered group was 18.77% and in Usheer administered group it was 15.47% (this is higher than the control group). This again shows that Sheeta Guna drugs may be promoting body weight gain. In Gokshur administered group, the body weight gain was less, being 9.08% only. It is to be pointed out here that the magnitude of Sheeta Guna is highest in Musta and comparatively lesser in Gokshur; hence, the observed difference in the body weight may be indicative of difference in the intensity in Sheeta Guna.
Based on the above, it can be suggested that though individual parameters in the Deepan and Paachan study did not consistently reflect the influence of either Sheeta or Ushna Guna, measurement of body weight can have utility after further refinement. Keeping the influence of season of study and feeding state of the animals in mind, if the experiments are designed and studied using only the drugs possessing higher magnitude of Ushna and Sheeta property, it may be possible to standardize a protocol to determine the Gunas. The basic assumption has to be that in the animals with proper nourishment, Ushna Guna drugs would decrease the rate of body weight gain and drugs with Sheeta Guna would increase the rate of body weight gain in comparison to control animals without receiving any medication. Such experiments have to be carried out in different seasons so that it could be possible to select the proper time for the study where in the influence of the Guna is likely to be maximum.
There was no uniformity in the observed effects and hence no general categorization could be done based on Ushna and Sheeta Gunas.
| Conclusion|| |
Out of the five parameters analyzed in the pharmacological study, change in body weight is to be considered to a large extent as a parameter for assessment of Ushna and Sheeta Gunas. Though some of the parameters could not provide satisfactory results, still Deepan-Paachan is suggested as a possible parameter. Absolute evolution of one Guna is not possible in living body as infinite factors are related with every biological event. This may be a major cause behind unsatisfactory results of pharmacological studies.
| References|| |
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|3.||Sushruta, 'Sushruta Samhita' with 'Nibandha Sangrha commentary by Dallhanacharya, edited by Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamaji Acharya and Narayana Rama Aachrya, Sootra Sthana 4.6/252. 8 th ed. Chaukhamba Orientalia, post box. no. 1032, Gopal Mandir Lane,Varanasi -221 001, (India), 2005. p.252. |
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|6.||Agnivesha,'Charak Samhita', revised Hindi commentary, by Dr. Brahmanand Tripathi, Chaukhambha Surbharti Prakashan, Gopal Mandir Lane,Varanasi -221 001, (India), reprint 2003, Sootra Sthana 5/3. p.102. |
|7.||Agnivesha,'Charak Samhita', revised Hindi commentary, by Dr. Brahmanand Tripathi, Chaukhambha Surbharti Prakashan, Gopal Mandir Lane,Varanasi -221 001, (India), reprint 2003, Viman Sthana 8/96-98. p.759-61. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11]