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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 7-11 Table of Contents     

Process standardization of Rasamanikya

1 Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India
2 Reader, Department of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India
3 Professor & Head, Department of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India

Date of Web Publication7-Aug-2010

Correspondence Address:
K Srimannarayana
Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.68195

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Rasamanikya is a famous drug, frequently used by Ayurvedic physicians for Vata-Kaphaja diseases like Shwasa, Kasa and Kushtha (Skin disorders). Various methods of preparation have been found described in Rasa classics. Generally it is prepared by Shuddha Haratala which is kept between two thin transparent Abharaka Patra (mica sheets) in small scale and in sharava for large scale, heated up to desired level. There are so many methods and different liquid media have been found described for Shodhana of Haratala. Therefore the methods of preparation of Rasamanikya and Shodhana process of Haratala have been validated through various experiments. Tankana-treated Haratala (T. Treated) is found best for Shodhana process and final product too i.e. Rasamanikya in terms of pharmaceutical standards i.e. Ruby in colour, along with reproducibility of fixed quality.

Keywords: Shodhana, Validation, T-Treated Haratala

How to cite this article:
Srimannarayana K, Patgiri B J, Prajapati P K. Process standardization of Rasamanikya. AYU 2010;31:7-11

How to cite this URL:
Srimannarayana K, Patgiri B J, Prajapati P K. Process standardization of Rasamanikya. AYU [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Jun 27];31:7-11. Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2010/31/1/7/68195

   Introduction Top

Rasamanikya has been first described in Rasendra Chintamani by Dhundhukanath [3] in 13 th century A.D. as "Rasam Manikya Prabham" which directly indicates the standard of finished product i.e. Ruby colour. The same product has been described by Krishnaram Bhatt in Siddha Bheshaja Manimala [5] as Kumuda Rasa. The product of Kupipakva method of preparation i.e. Tala Manikya also was one of the synonym called Rasamanikya. This product is one of the familiar medicaments used throughout India by Ayurvedic physicians for various disorders including Jwara [5] (Fevers), Kasa (Cough), Shwasa (Dyspnoea), Arshas (Piles), Bhagandara (Fissures), Nadi Vrana (Chronic wounds) and Kushtha [4] (skin ailments), with different Anupanas [2] in various dosage forms. Haratala, one of the Arsenical raw materials emphasized since Samhita period [8],[9] turns into ambrosia after Shodhana processes and manufacturing techniques. This requires proper care, critical understanding and computed technology to get the desired character of Rasamanikya.

Standardization of Rasaushadhies can be defined with the number of processes, involved in the production of a drug. The standard protocols mentioned in the classics [7] , which may be applied to the present manufacturing scientific pharmaceutical ambience, such as quality of raw materials [1] to be taken for the process. The process standardization protocols are like temperature, time space, instrument and heating devices etc. along with purification protocols like number of Bhavana [4] , Swedana [6] etc. and the finished drug protocol [2] viz colour, fineness, safety profile, bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy etc. Validation [13],[14] of the method of preparation is to be done by manufacturing the same product by similar method and instrumentation, for any number of times, with standard raw material getting output of same product with specification of parameters. The analysis of the raw material (Ashuddha Haratala), intermediate (Shodhita Haratala) and finished product (Rasamanikya) in terms of percentage of Arsenic and Sulphur etc.as compared with standard parameters, was carried out in same respect.

   Aims and Objective Top

  • To develop standard product (Rasamanikya) as per classical parameters.

   Material and Methods Top

The Media for Shodhana like Kushmanda, Dadhy amla, Kanji etc. various heating devices like gas burner, electric muffle furnace etc. and instruments along with other accessories used as per [Table 1][Table 2].
Table 1 :Material, Media and Accessories required for Shodhana & preparation of Rasamanikya

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Table 2: Different Method of Preparation of Rasamanikya

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Methods for Shodhana: Shodhana of Haratala was done by adapting following procedures as unit process.

Bhavana (Wet-Trituration): It is a process in which the drug material is taken in a Khalva Yantra and the liquid material is added to it slowly up to Rasapankawat stage (semi solid) and then it is triturated till dryness. The process is repeated for 1 or 3 or 7 or more times as per reference. [2],[4]

Kshipta (submerging in media): Kshipta is a process in which the drug material is kept in the media for one day (24 hours) or more as per reference, which is to be changed every day by adding the fresh media and this repeated for 3 or 5or 7 days [2],[4] .

Swedana (Heating under liquid bath) - Swedana is a process in which the substance is placed in a cloth which should be four-folded and made into Pottali. Then it is hanged with a glass rod in a pot in such a manner that it should not touch any side and remain suspended in centre. It is known as Dola Yantra which is filled with liquid media and subjected to mild heat up to prescribed duration.

Following liquid media were taken for Shodhana-

Churnodaka [11] (limewater [12] ), Kushmanda Swarasa (juice of Benincasa Hispida), Shalmali Kwatha (Decoction of Salmalia malabarica), Tilakshara Jala (Alkaline water of Sesamum indicum) and Kanji + Churnodaka (T. method) (Sour gruel and limewater) [1] .

Total six methods were adopted for the preparation of Rasamanikya including Sarava Samputa (Antardhuma), Open Sharava Samputa, (Bahirdhuma), Mica sheets (Open air method), Fuse bulb method along with modified heating device pattern i.e. blow lamp method (Modified Vankanala [2] ) and Kupipakwa [11] method, also used to befit present scientific and technological advancement with the control on temperature pattern and duration of heat as mentioned above.

   Results Top

Lime water (After purification of Hartala)

Physical appearance was Pale yellow solution with suspended particles, smell of Hydrogen Sulphide H2S having Ash value 0.58 % w/w, test for Arsenic (Reinsch Test) positive and in Qualitative analysis of ash following Cations were present viz., Fe, Ca, Mg, Na and CO 3 , SO 4 , Cl, S , AsO 4 Anions were present. Analysis of Ash value, Arsenic content and free sulphur of samples of Ashuddha Haratala, Churnodaka treated Haratala, T-treated Haratala, Residue (T-treated), Churnodaka treated Rasamanikya (Mica), T-treated Rasamanikya (Mica) and T-treated Rasamanikya (Kupi) were carried out. Results are shown in [Table 3], [Table 4].
Table 3: Results of quantitative chemical analysis

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Table 4: Results of Shodhana with various Procedures and Media

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Methods of preparation of Rasamanikya

In preparation of Rasamanikya by Mica sheets, Blow lamp and Fuse bulb loss was 5%-10% on an average where as in Kupipakwa method loss was minimum i.e. 2.5%. Time consumed and remarks are shown in [Table 5]. General observation of yield of Rasamanikya with various media are shown in [Table 6], [Table 7].
Table 5 Results of Rasamanikya prepared by different methods with respect to time duration & loss

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Table 6 : Results of Rasamanikya prepared with various media

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Table 7: Different media used, Shodhita Haratala and yield of Rasamanikya

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   Discussion Top

Grahya Lakshanas of Patra Haratala as per the classics has been taken as Qualitative Protocols viz. authentication of raw material - Patra Haratala, Chemical configuration - As2S3, Colour -(Swranabhavm) Golden Yellow, Texture - (Bhupatrakam) with layer, Weight -(Guru) heavy.

Based on characteristics of purified Haratala, the limewater treated Haratala and other methods of purification as said to be well and good. The marker of purification is said to be quality of finished product i.e. Rasamanikya. Various colour obtained after Shodhana and preparation of Rasamanikya varied with different media.

Results of Shodhana by Swedana, Kshipta and Bhavana processes of various media were shown in [Table 4]. Shodhana by limewater and Kushmanda Swarasa showed a loss of 2% and 5% respectively and cream colour and slight cream colour of Shodhita Haratala. Where as a loss of 1.5% of media by T-treated and golden yellow colour of Shodhita Haratala was observed.

Standard protocol of Shodhana - Swedana

Media: Churnodaka, Kushmanda Swarasa, Shalmali Kwatha, Kanji+Churnodaka (Tankana treated)

The stainless steel vessel was taken for study, which was having diameter of 15 cm diameter, height of vessel from out side 10cm,. The size of vessel, from in side (occupied) 5cm height of the media, 4 cm vacant, 12 cm diameter. It was heated on LPG stove, for 3 hours. The temperature of the liquid has been maintained 90C - 95C.

Details of T method [13]

Ashuddha Haratala (500 g.) was made into yavakuta (coarse powder) passed through 40no. mesh Added 10% of Tankana i.e. 50 g. by weight to it. And first wash was given with lemon juice (200 ml.) followed by second wash which was given with Kanji (200 ml.). The washed Haratala (498 g.) was transferred into a cloth and prepared in the form of pottali. This pottali was hanged in Dola Yantra filled with the mixture of Kanji and Churnodaka (Equal quantity i.e.1:1). Then it was heated for three hours by maintaining the temperature range of liquid at 90C to 95C on mild heat. After completion of heating process and Ten minutes of cooling, the Haratala was taken out from Pottali and washed with hot water to remove the residue of liquid. The obtained material was dried at room temperature weighed and stored in suitable container.

The Shodhita Haratala was spread between two mica sheets and closed with clips. It was then heated on LPG stove till it converts into Rasamanikya.

In Kupipakwa method, Shodhita Haratala was filled in a Kupi which was coated by three layers of mud smeared cloth and subjected to heat. During the preparation the temperature formelting was observed 359C and boiling at 415C while the temperature at which product was prepared at 450C. The colour of finished product was Ruby i.e. Rasamanikya. Total time consumed by E.M.F. was 33 minutes and after self cooling the Rasamanikya was collected from the bottle.

The mica sheet method was found cheaper and easier for less quantity i.e. only 10 gm at a time but it is not useful for pharmaceutical companies and due to same reason the fuse bulb method was also not found suitable in present context. Antaradhuma (sand bath) method produced good quantum of Rasamanikya but it is time consuming and not economical. It was also not found suitable for reproducibility of the good quality product. The Open Sharava method produces a lot of Arsenic vapours due to which causes exposure to the person and polluted the environment too. Thus, it is not a suitable method considering the hygienic point of view, and due to same problem the blow lamp method is also not found suitable

The Kupipakwa method was found best because, it produces good quality of Rasamanikya also supported by previous studies by Harish et al. and D.K. Mishra et al. though they have prepared it by valuka yantra and with churanodaka Shodhita Haratala. Here the Haratala was Shodhita by Tankana treated method and Rasamanikya was prepared in electric muffle furnace which is found easier and economical too.

   Conclusion Top

Tankana treated method for the Shodhana of Haratala is found better because the Rasamanikya prepared by it is having good quality, so it is validated qualitatively and quantitatively,The Rasamanikya prepared by Kupipakwa method stands economical, less time consuming and gives best results in terms of reproducibility.[Table 2],[Table 7]

   References Top

1.Shri Vagbhattacharya, Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya, Kulkarni D.A., Hindi commentary, Meharchand Laxmandas Publication, New Delhi, 1998, (3/70-72, p. 64).  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, 11th Edition, Motilal Banarsidas, New Delhi, 2000, (2) 49 pp. 21, 11/83-93, p. 257-258).  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Dhundhukanath, Rasendra Chintamani, Mishra S. N., Hindi commentary, Chaukhamba Orientallia, Varanasi, 2000, (9/128-133, p. 376).   Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Bhatta K.G., Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Tripathi I. D., Hindi commentary, 2nd Edition, Chaukhamba Orientallia, Varanasi, 1998, (1/191-196, p. 48-49).  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Krishnaram Bhatt, Siddha Bheshaja Manimala, Kaladhar Bhatt Hindi commentary Published by Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, 3rd Edition, (4/66-67, p. 159, 160).  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Parvatiputra Nityanath, Rasa Ratnakar, Vadikhanda Ridhhikhanda, commentary by Swaminath Mishra, Published by Chaukhamba Publishers, Varanasi, 2nd Edition 2003, (3/84-86, p. 35).  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Hari Prapanna Ji, Rasa Yoga Sagar, Vol. II, Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, 1st Edition, 1998, (2531-2538, p. 563-565).  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Agnivesha's Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa, Vol. V, Ayurved Dipika & Jalpa Kalpataru commentary, Edited by Y. T. Acharya, 2nd Edition, Chaukhambha Publishers, Varanasi, 2002, (23/24, p. 3197-3199).   Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Kalpa Sthan, Nibandha Sangraha Dalhana commentary, Edited by Y. T. Acharya et al, 9th Edition, Chaukhambha Surabharati Prakashan,Varanasi, 2003, (2/5, p. 564).  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Patel and Bhatt, Rasamanikyam - P.G. Thesis, GAU,1966-1967.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Harish A. Anadkat et al., Pharmaceutico - clinical study of Rasamanikyam resulting its efficacy on Kshudra Kushta, 1988.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.D. K. Mishra et al., Rasamanikya Evam Yashadamrut MalAhara Ka Nirmanatmaka Tatha Vicharchika Vyadhi Par Prabhavotpadaka Adhyayana, 1999.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.K. Shrimannarayan, "A compilation work on Drug Research Standardisation of Rasaushadhi", GAU, 2004, .  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.W.H.O.'s General guidelines for methodologies on research of traditional medicine, Geneva, 2000.  Back to cited text no. 14      


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]

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