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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-14 Table of Contents     

Random estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method

Ex. Research Officer - Chemistry, 2, Ganesh Colony, Naya Bazar, Gwalior-9, India

Date of Web Publication7-Aug-2010

Correspondence Address:
R B Saxena
Central Research Institute - Ayurveda, Aamkho, Gwalior
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.68196

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The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations.

Keywords: Seed oil of Cucurbita maxima, bio-sciences, refractometer, equations.

How to cite this article:
Saxena R B. Random estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method. AYU 2010;31:12-4

How to cite this URL:
Saxena R B. Random estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method. AYU [serial online] 2010 [cited 2021 Nov 27];31:12-4. Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2010/31/1/12/68196

   Introduction Top

Quality control and standardization of crude and medicated oil is dier need of to-day for putting the oil pharmacy on sound footing. The raw materials brought into market in various forms are frequently adulterated with cheaper, less potent or spurious materials poising danger to public health. Novelty of the dietary and medical oils have been attracting the chemists for the last three or four decades. Pharmocological application encouraged the chemists to go ahead with their work to the relation of diseases. The preliminary values can not solve the problems of bio-sciences. Bio-sciences problems are very wide and deep. Refractive index method has been created as one of the most appreciated techniques to study the different values. The advantages of the method are its simplicity, selectivity and rapidity of determination the values. The study of Cucurbita maxima seed oil has also been done [1] , but accurate identity is still unclear from the bio-sciences points of view. Few equations have been used for the determination of different constant values, because the pH of human body is made up of between 4 to 8. These equations are also give with a view to provide scientific and systematic informations,which will be highly useful to maintain uniformity and quality of the oil. The purpose of the presentation is to report (1) a new direct random estimation of different values from refractive index value and (2) comparative study of random estimated values with those obtained by using the experimental values for the same of C. maxima seed tail (mst).

   Materials and Methods Top

Refractive index (n) values of (mst) have been determined by Abbe's refractometer and calculated from equations (02) and (03) [2],[3] .

The random estimation of constant values from the (n) have been determined by different equations [4],[5],[6] .

   Results and Discussion Top

Acid, free fatty acids, degree of acidity, molecular weight, apparent density, refractive index, unsaturation values are essential for the potency and life of tail, because free fatty acids have greater medicinal value.

[Table 1], different values (glycerol, glyceride, pure fatty acids,number of oxygen required for combustion, lund's, relation between neutralization number and equivalent, agni, internal energy), which are determined by equations from (n) of instrument and calculated, are found approximate constant. Slightly variable is found due to temperature effect. So, these equations are very useful for the random estimation of different values. Eq.(02) is not reliable for the estimation of different values of oils, because it is used for purely unsaturated oils [5] .

Refractive index values of Abbe's refractometer and calculated by eqs. (02) and (03)have too much dissimilarity, this may be due to effect of temperature, heterogenous properties, polarity and unsaturation [7].
Table 1 :Random estimation of different values from refractive index (N) of Seed Oil of Cucurbita Maxima

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Different percentage of (SA) and (USA) in experiment, instrument and calculated confirms some other unsaturated acids or compounds are present in oil, which confirms the values of (OA) and (LNA) of eq. (02).

The controversy of (OA) and (LNA) present in exp. and eq. (02) while absence in eq. (03), indicates the trace amount may be present in (mst). Iodine value of eq. (03) is higher than exp. and eq. (02) values, may be due heat induced surface polymerization [9],[10] . This is also supported by less iodine values than more (n.o.) values. Lower Lund's values from (n) values indicate the presence of polymerize properties without conjugate double bonds [6] , but the Abbe's and eq. (02) values do not prove this properties [11] . Higher acid values from experimental value give positive Kreis test, rancidity may not be possible [12] . Abbe's iodine value is found less than 100, so it belongs to non-drying group of oil [13] .

Less value of monoglyceride from pure value (56108.0) may be the presence of impurity or unsaturation [14] . The constant glycerol values indicate the glyceride, lactones and estolides are absent in oil, but the higher exp. (101.04) from Abbe's eqs. (02) and (03) indicated the presence in oil [4] .

The relationship between neutralization number and equivalent is of course the same. The Abbe's value is much less than given constant value indicates the semipolar of (mst) [15] , but eqs. (02) and (03) values are found approximate constant prove the non-polarity [14] .

Lower agni values (Abbe's, eqs. (02) and (03)) from experimental value indicate the chain length of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have been broken [16],[17] .

The values of (rD) and (FEV) are useful for the study of temperature and pressure effect, because they are independent on temperature and pressure [18] . The exp., eqs. (02) and (03) values are found approximate constant indicate more accouracy of groups and elements for the compounds of (mst) [19] . The various (r) and (a) values show the effect of temperature in crude oil [19] .

   References Top

1.M.A. Alfawaz, Chemical composition and oil characteristic of Cucurbita maxima seed karnels, Res. Bult. 129, Food Science and Agric. Res. Centre, king Sand Univ., 5-18 (2004).  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.R.B. Saxena, Random estimation of different values in Guducyadi tail from refractive index, J. Ayurveda Sameeksha, 1, 9, 240-242 (1998).  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.K. Mittal, G.A. Norris, J. Alexander and D. Swern, Bailey's Industrial Oil and products, Inter Sciences Publishers.Division of john Wiley and Sons, New York (1964).  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.L.V. Cocks and C. Van Redy, Laboratory Hand Book for Oil and Fat Analysts, Academic Press London (1966).  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.R.B. Saxena, Estimation of different values of tails by refractive index, J. Res. PL & Med., 14, 2, 13-19 (1993-1994).  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.R.B.Saxena, Study of Dashamula tail by index of refraction method, J. Aryavaidyan, 7, 3, 153-156 (1994).  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.R.B. Saxena, Standardization of Panchaguna tail, Asian J. Chemistry, 1, 2, 181 (1989).  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.R.B. Saxena, Random estimation of different values in Mushaka tail, Sachitra Ayurved, 47, 12, 940-944 (1995).  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.L. Zeleny and D.A. Colman, Oil and Soap, 253 (1936).  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.S. Glasston, Text Book of Physical Chemistry, Macmillan Indian Press, Madras (1981).  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.J. Lund, Z. Unter, Nahr, Genu., 44, 113 (1922).  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.G.L. Jenkins, J.E. Christian and G.P. Hager, Quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry, McGraw Hill Company Ind. New York, 276 (1973).  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.R.B. Saxena, H.C. Mehta and M.T. Daswani, Study of Bayyuccaya Surendra Tail, J. Sc. Res. PL & Med., 13, 1, 17-22 (1995).  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.R.B. Saxena, M.T. Daswani, and P.D. Trivedi, Study of Kubja Prasarini Tail, J. Aryavaidyan, 5, 4, 232-237 (1992).  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.K.F. Mittil, F.A. Norris, A.J. Stiroton and D. Swern, Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Interscience Publishers, A division of John Willey and Sons, New York, 58, 111 (1964).  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.R.B. Saxena, Agni study of Dashamula tail, National Journal of Ayurveda, 4, 4, 10 (1994).  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.R.B. Saxena, Determination Agni of Ayurveda Tails, J. Sc. Res. PL & Med., 13-14, 51-56 (1992-1993).  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.J.A. Dean, Lange's Hand Book Company, New York, 10,93 (1972).  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.R.B. Saxena, Study of Any tail, Sachitra Ayurved, 46, 11, 845-849 (1994).  Back to cited text no. 19      


  [Table 1]


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