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   2011| October-December  | Volume 32 | Issue 4  
    Online since May 14, 2012

 
 
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PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Antiobesity effect of Stellaria media against drug induced obesity in Swiss albino mice
Vijay R Chidrawar, Krishnakant N Patel, Navin R Sheth, Shruti S Shiromwar, Piyush Trivedi
October-December 2011, 32(4):576-584
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96137  PMID:22661858
The whole plant of Stellaria media (family: Caryophyllaceae) has been tested for its antiobesity activity by using progesterone-induced obesity model in female albino mice. The effect of S. media on food consumption pattern, change in body weight, thermogenesis, lipid metabolism, and histology of fat pad. were examined. Methanolic and alcoholic extracts of the S. media were used in the study. Methanolic extract of S. media (MESM) have prevented the increase in body weight, adipose tissue weight and size, and upturned obesity and associated complications. MESM has also shown promising effects compared with alcoholic extract of S. media may be because of its multiple mechanisms. These findings suggest that antiobesity activity produced by MESM is because of its anorexic property mediated by saponin and flavonoid and partly of by its β-sitosterol content. β-Sitosterol in the plant extract was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography study. β-sitosterol is plant sterol having structural similarity with dietary fat which do the physical competition in the gastrointestinal tract and reduces fat absorption. Before carrying in vivo activity detail pharmacognostic and phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out. The plant has shown the presence of saponin, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, glycosides, and anthocynidine. By this study, it can be concluded that, MESM is beneficial in suppression of obesity induced by progesterone.
  8 6,000 682
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Clinical evaluation of Boswellia serrata (Shallaki) resin in the management of Sandhivata (osteoarthritis)
PK Gupta, S. M. S. Samarakoon, HM Chandola, B Ravishankar
October-December 2011, 32(4):478-482
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96119  PMID:22661840
Sandhigata vata is described under Vatavyadhi in all Ayurvedic texts. Charaka was the first to describe separately "Sandhigata anila", but it was not included under 80 types of nanatmaja vatavyadhi. Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative joint disease that begins asymptomatically in middle age with progressive symptoms in advancing age. Majority of people by the age 40 years may develop osteoarthritis, especially in weight bearing joints. Females are prone with 25% prevalence, whereas males have a prevalence of 16%. In the present study, 56 patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of Sandhigata vata, divided into two groups. Patients of first group were administered with 500 mg capsule of Shallaki, 6 g per day (in three divided doses) with lukewarm water (n=29) and the second group) capsule Shallaki as above along with local application of Shallaki ointment on the affected joints (n=23). After a course of therapy for 2 months, symptomatic improvement was observed in both the groups at various levels with promising results in the patients of first group.
  7 6,810 1,222
PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts
Pankaj B Nariya, Nayan R Bhalodia, VJ Shukla, RN Acharya
October-December 2011, 32(4):585-589
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96138  PMID:22661859
Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested.
  7 3,186 602
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
A clinical study on the effect of Rishyagandha (Withania coagulans) in the management of Prameha (Type II Diabetes Mellitus)
BN Upadhyay, Vandana Gupta
October-December 2011, 32(4):507-511
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96124  PMID:22661845
The study was conducted with an objective of evaluating the role of Rishyagandha (Withania coagulans) powder in clinically diagnosed cases of Prameha. 53 Registered cases were divided into 3 groups; Group A (Rishyagandha fruits powder), Group B (Oral Hypoglycaemic Agent i.e. OHA), and Group C (Rishyagandha fruits powder and OHA both). Statistically significant improvement was observed in objective and subjective parameters in all 3 groups after completion of the course of treatment. Based on the results, it has been concluded that, Rishyagandha fruits powder is an effective therapeutic regimen in the management of uncomplicated cases of Prameha.
  5 4,884 744
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nisshesha rechaka pranayama offers benefits through brief intermittent hypoxia
Prakash Chintamani Malshe
October-December 2011, 32(4):451-457
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96114  PMID:22661835
Hypoxia has been a frightening term for doctors and medical students because of the possibility of damage to cells, tissues and organs. However, we now know that brief, episodic hypoxia gives rise to several adaptive responses. These responses in general prepare the body for better tolerating such hypoxic episodes, and also offer protection against several other types of insults. Indeed, scientists at the erstwhile U.S.S.R. have developed what is known as 'hypoxia therapy' and reaped the benefits of brief intermittent hypoxia for the last several decades. In India, yogic treatment of various diseases is common. A lesser known but important variety of Pranayama is 'nisshesha rechaka', which may be described as breath holding at residual volume. Studies done at our centre have demonstrated that Nisshesha rechaka is the easiest way to produce brief, intermittent hypoxia. There is therefore reason to believe that Nisshesha rechaka pranayama may offer benefits through this mechanism.
  3 4,444 664
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Effect of Ayurvedic herbs on control of plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial
Avinash Kadam, BS Prasad, Dilesh Bagadia, VR Hiremath
October-December 2011, 32(4):532-535
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96128  PMID:22661849
Ayurveda had mentioned various procedures for maintaining oral hygiene. These include procedures like gandusha, kavala, dantadhavana, and jivha lekhana (cleaning tongue). Various plants have been mentioned in Ayurveda for dantakashta. Various Ayurvedic dental formulations are available in market in the form of powders, paste, etc. Present study was conducted for evaluating the effect of one of such Ayurvedic toothpowder named UDM, in controlling plaque and reducing gum inflammation in patients of moderate gingivitis. Scaling, root planning, and polishing were done for all the patients participating in the study. Oral hygiene instructions were given that included brushing twice/day with assigned tooth powder using BASS method for tooth brushing and also massage over gum tissue with finger. All the patients were recalled after 15 days. Scores of plaque index and gingival index was recorded on day 1 and day 15 of treatment. Total of 15 patients were recruited in each group. The mean reduction in gingival index was 1.15 (P<0.05) and 1.26 (P<0.05) in positive control and UDM treatment groups, respectively. However, the mean reduction in plaque indices were found to be 2.03 (P<0.05) and 2.16 (P<0.05) in positive control and UDM groups, respectively. No significant difference was seen in both the parameters between the two groups.
  2 8,024 767
PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION
Standard manufacturing procedure of Rajata Bhasma
Rekha Chaturvedi, CB Jha
October-December 2011, 32(4):566-571
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96135  PMID:22661856
Rasa Shastra is a branch of Ayurveda which deals with the processing of minerals and metals having therapeutic importance. Rajata comes under the group of metals having high therapeutic value. Minerals and metals are mostly used in the form of Bhasma. During the medieval period Rasacharyas extensively worked and developed a number of processing methods for a single drug. They all are standard manufacturing procedures (SMP) which ensure the quality, safety, efficacy and reproducibility of the product. Earlier Ayurvedic physicians were producing medicines by themselves according to their need. Now a day, due to commercialization of Ayurvedic medicines and ignorance of classical methods, quality of drugs has deteriorated. Presently, the demand of Ayurvedic drugs in the global market is increasing day by day. Hence it is the need of time to develop SMP for Ayurvedic products for global acceptability. This paper aims at providing SMP for the manufacture of Rajata Bhasma and also attempts to study the effect of Shodhana process on Rajata. Rajata was obtained from the local market of Varanasi. Rajata Bhasma was prepared and it was observed that during the preparation of Rajata Bhasma, use of Muffle Furnace instead of conventional Puta is more advantageous due to better temperature control. Use of mercury and sulphur together acts as best medium in the preparation of Rajata Bhasma.
  2 3,693 1,024
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
A comparative study of Vamana and Virechana Karma in the management of Sthula Pramehi w.s.r. to Type-2 diabetes
Rajeev Kumar Pandey, NN Bhatt, TM Singhala, VD Shukla
October-December 2011, 32(4):536-539
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96129  PMID:22661850
In the present study, Vamana and Virechana along with palliative treatment was given to patients of Sthula Prameha (Diabetes mellitus or DM). An attempt was made to compare and evaluate the role of Shodhana therapy (Vamana and Virechana). Total 47 patients of Sthula Pramehi were registered in this study, out of which 38 completed the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups, viz. Vamana with Shamana (Group A) and Virechana with Shamana (Group B). Eighteen patients completed the treatment in Group A and 20 in Group B. Neem giloy satva capsule was used as Shamana drug at a dose of 500 mg twice daily after meals for 30 days in both the groups. The efficacy of therapy was assessed based on relief in cardinal signs and symptoms and blood sugar, lipid profile and other biochemical parameters etc. The results showed that the Vamana provided better relief in signs and symptoms as well as on fasting blood sugar (FBS) and postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) in comparison to Virechana.
  1 2,901 577
Effects of Ayurvedic treatment on 100 patients of chronic renal failure (other than diabetic nephropathy)
Manish V Patel, SN Gupta, Nimesh G Patel
October-December 2011, 32(4):483-486
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96120  PMID:22661841
Chronic renal failure (CRF) refers to an irreversible deterioration in renal function, which develops over a period of years. This initially manifests only as a biochemical abnormality. CRF is considered when glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 ml/min. The conventional approach of management includes dialysis and renal transplantation, which are not affordable by Indian population mainly due to economic reasons. Therefore, exploration of a safe and alternative therapy is needed, which proves to be helpful in reducing the requirement of dialysis and in postponing the renal transplantation. A clinical study of 100 patients of CRF was conducted at OPD and IPD of PD Patel Ayurved Hospital, Nadiad. They were given Niruha basti of Punarnavadi kvatha daily with oral medicaments including Goksuradi guggulu, Rasayana churna, and Varunadi kvatha for 1 month period. The patients of CRF, having diabetic nephropathy as a cause, were excluded since a separate study for diabetic nephropathy is being conducted. Results were analyzed statistically using the "t " test. The symptoms and signs, serum creatinine, blood urea, urine albumin level were reduced, which were found to be statistically highly significant on "t " test.
  1 27,615 1,944
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL RESEARCH
Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach
Jignesh Kevalia, Bhupesh Patel
October-December 2011, 32(4):550-553
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96132  PMID:22661853
Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug.
  1 3,375 491
PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities of Sarasvata choorna in experimental animals
Kshama Gupta, BK Ashok, B Ravishankar, AB Thakar
October-December 2011, 32(4):590-593
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96139  PMID:22661860
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity of Sarasvata choorna. The anxiolytic activity was evaluated in elevated plus maze (EPM) and the anti-depressant activity was evaluated in forced swimming test (FST). The efficacy of Sarasvata choorna was compared with the standard anti-anxiety (diazepam 2 mg/kg) and anti-depressant (imipramine - 5 mg/kg) drugs. It was observed that Sarasvata choorna at the dose of 390 mg/kg is as effective as standard drugs used in anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities in mice by increasing time spent in open arm and entries to open arm in EPM model and increasing immobility time in FST model respectively. Hence it can be concluded that Sarasvata choorna may be used as a potent therapeutic agent in treating anxiety and depressive disorders.
  1 2,681 520
REVIEW ARTICLES
Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective
K Nishteswar
October-December 2011, 32(4):458-460
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96115  PMID:22661836
Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12 th cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15 th century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18 th century.
  1 2,686 584
EDITORIALS
Nourishing the tree of Ayurveda: Enriched with specialty!
HM Chandola
October-December 2011, 32(4):443-444
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96111  PMID:22661832
  - 2,666 10,250
Exploring progression of Ayurveda
Gopal Basisht
October-December 2011, 32(4):445-447
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96112  PMID:22661833
  - 2,093 2,700
INNOVATIVE PROPOSAL
Water purification prescribed in Ayurveda
KP Skandhan, S Amith, L. P. A. Karunatilake, K. P. S. Avni, Kulwant Singh
October-December 2011, 32(4):448-450
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96113  PMID:22661834
Authors present here water purifying methods for drinking purpose by employing few kinds of flowers, a traditional knowledge available in India from the classics of Ayurveda, the oldest system of medical practices. A simple method is designed to conduct a study for finding out the efficacy of the said method.
  - 3,893 1,376
LETTERS TO EDITOR
"Ayurpathy" - The pharmaceuticalization of Ayurveda
Kishor Patwardhan
October-December 2011, 32(4):594-595
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96140  PMID:22661861
  - 2,740 511
Mysore Tridosha scale
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
October-December 2011, 32(4):595-595
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96141  PMID:22661862
  - 1,234 406
ORIGINAL ARTICLE - SURVEY STUDY
Study of Vaikalyakara Marma with special reference to Kurpara Marma
SK Muley, NN Ingale, SD Bhingare
October-December 2011, 32(4):472-477
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96118  PMID:22661839
This study was undertaken to study Kurpara Marma in relation to its Vaikalyakara effects when injured. The location of Kurpara Marma was found with the help of the description of Marma in Ayurvedic texts, dissection of the elbow joint, and with help of X-ray documentation. Total 80 patients having trauma to elbow joints due to various causes such as fall, road traffic accident, direct trauma on elbow joint, history of trauma a year back, and injury due to burn were included in this study. These patients were observed for 3 months for any changes in symptoms. In Sushruta Samhita, it was stated that an injury to the Kurpara Marma ends in Kuni (dangling of the hand), swelling, loss of power, restricted movements, and muscle wasting and associated symptoms like tingling sensation, heaviness, syncope, sweating, dizziness, and vomiting. After analysis of data, i.e., after analyzing the percentage of all symptoms on admission as well as after 3 months, it was found that all 80 patients, i.e., 100% had swelling and loss of muscle power. A total of 72 patients, i.e. 90% had dangling of hand on admission. After 3 months, 40 patients (50%) still remained with the dangling of hand. Seventy-two patients had restriction in flexion and extension deformity which still remained in 50% of patients. Hence, it was proved that Kurpara (elbow joint) is definitely a Vaikalyakara Marma. Disabilities like restriction of movements, swelling, and atrophy were remains of an injured elbow joint inspite of best surgical treatment.
  - 3,746 507
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
A comparative study on Vamana Karma with Madanaphala and Krutavedhana in Ekakushtha (Psoriasis)
Jaimin R Patel, Santoshkumar Bhatted
October-December 2011, 32(4):487-493
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96121  PMID:22661842
Vamana Karma (therapeutic emesis) is the best therapy for the elimination of vitiated Kapha Dosha. In the present clinical practice Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum) is mainly used for Vamana Karma. Apart from Madanaphala, five other drugs, and in total 355 formulations are described in Charaka Samhita; one of them is Krutavedhana (Luffa acutangula) kalpa (formulations). Krutavedhana is specially indicated in Gadha (compact) Dosha condition like Kushtha (skin diseases), Garavisha (slow poison), and so on, for Vamana Karma. The present study aimed to observe the effect on Vamana Karma and by that its effect on Ekakushtha (Psoriasis). Krutavedhana Beeja Churna (seed powder) was given with Madhu (honey) and Saindhava (rock salt) as Vamana Yoga (emetic formulation), to compare it with Madanaphala Pippali Churna (seed powder). After the Sansarjana Krama (special dietetic schedule), Panchatikta Ghrita (medicated ghee) was given as Shamana Sneha (pacifying oleation). An average dose of Krutavedhana was 5.9 g. Krutavedhana could produce a good number of Vega (bouts), Pittanta Lakshana (bile coming out at the end of Vamana), and Pravara Shuddhi (maximum cleansing) in a majority of patients. Madanaphala is the best among all Vamaka (emetic) drugs, but Krutavedhana showed a similar to higher effect on Vamana Karma in terms of Antiki, Maniki, Vaigiki, and Laingiki Shuddhi (cleansing criteria). Vamana Karma by Krutavedhana showed better relief in Matsyashakalopamam (silvery scale), Kandu (itching), and Rukshataa (dryness), while Madanapahala showed better relief in Krishnaruna Varna (erythema). After completion of the Shamana (pacifying) treatment, both the groups showed nearly the same effect on Asvedanam (lack of perspiration), Matsyashakalopamam, Kandu, Rukshataa, Krishnaruna Varna, and Mahaavaastu (bigger lesion).
  - 3,171 558
A comparative clinical trial of Chincha kshara and Kadali kshara on Amlapitta
S Acharya, PK Panda, G Acharya, N Mohanty, PK Nathsharma, SC Dash
October-December 2011, 32(4):494-499
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96122  PMID:22661843
A clinical trial was carried out on 30 patients of Amlapitta aged between 20 to 35 years with complaints of Avipaka, hrit-kanthadaha, tikta-amlodgara, utklesa, udarasula, adhmana and aruchi, who were registered from OPD and IPD of Gopabandhu Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Puri. They were equally divided into three groups Chincha kshara, Kadali kshara and placebo (who were administered with fresh wheat powder) for 30 days in a dose of 500 mg thrice daily with water. Investigations was done in order to exclude upper gastrointestinal tract ulcer, carcinoma in stomach, cholecystitis, carcinoma gall bladder, and heart diseases. The clinical assessments were carried out on the 30 th day by subjective and objective parameters and it was inferred that both Chincha kshara and Kadali kshara were effective and reduced the symptoms of amlapitta. Chincha kshara was found to be more effective than Kadali kshara. The study shows the effect of Chincha and Kadali kshara which led to cure in 4(40%) and 3(30%) patients respectively, and maximum improvement in 4(40%) and 5(50%) patients affected with amlapitta disease, respectively. No untoward effect was noticed due to administration of ksharas during the clinical trial period.
  - 2,684 475
A comparative study of Shvasahara Leha and Vasa Haritaki Avaleha in the management of Tamaka Shvasa (Bronchial Asthma)
Manisha Sharma, Alankruta R Dave, VD Shukla
October-December 2011, 32(4):500-506
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96123  PMID:22661844
Tamaka Shvasa is a type of Shvasa Roga associated with difficulty in breathing as a result of which the patient prefers to sit in bed to get relief from his discomfort. Movement of air through Pranavaha Srotas is hampered in this disease resulting in the cry of organ heading toward complete failure for want of air. Tamaka Shvasa is well known for its episodic and chronic course which comes under the life-threatening disease. It is analogous to bronchial asthma due to similarity in symptoms, pathogenesis, onset, causes, and precipitating factors. In this study, 40 patients of Tamaka Shvasa were registered and randomly divided into two groups, out of which 31 patients completed the treatment. In Group A, Shvasahara Leha (5 g twice a day) was given for 2 months, while in Group B Vasa Haritaki Avaleha (5 g twice a day) was given for 2 months and follow-up was done for one month in both groups. The effects of therapy in both groups were assessed by a specially prepared proforma. Diagnosis was done by adult asthma diagnosis questionnaire and differential diagnosis with COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) was done by differential diagnosis questionnaire as both these conditions are overlapping. The results of the study indicate that the Vasa Haritaki Avaleha provided better relief than Shvasahara Leha in Tamaka Shvasa.
  - 2,358 439
A clinical study on the role of Akshi Tarpana with Jeevantyadi Ghrita in Timira (Myopia)
Poonam , R Manjusha, DB Vaghela, VJ Shukla
October-December 2011, 32(4):540-545
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96130  PMID:22661851
Myopia is a major public health problem pertaining to eye that entails substantial societal, personal, educational, and economical impact. Various surveys in India have found the prevalence of myopia ranging from 6.9% to 19.7%. Myopia progression is irreversible and methods for the correction of myopia are not without complications. Myopia closely resembles Timira involving first and second Patala in terms of symptoms, anatomical structures involved, and the pathogenesis of the disease. The study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of the Akshi-Tarpana procedure with Jeevantyadi Ghrita in fresh and old myopes. A total of 54 patients (108 eyes) having myopia ≥-6 D were registered for the study and divided into two groups (Group A, Akshi-Tarpana with Jeevantyadi Ghrita, and Group B, Akshi-Tarpana with plain Go Ghrita), by stratified sampling. The procedure was done in 5 sittings of 5 days each with an equal interval of 5 days between each sitting. A total of 22 patients in Group A and 18 in Group B completed the treatment. Obtained data were statistically analyzed using a t-test and the study reveals that objectively, 09.30% and 05.55% eyes were cured, 16.28% and 02.78% markedly improved, and 34.88% and 11.11% moderately improved in Group A and B, respectively.
  - 3,691 513
Application of Satkaryavada based on theory of Karya-Karana Vada
Akansha Anupam, RR Dwivedi
October-December 2011, 32(4):546-549
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96131  PMID:22661852
Cikitsa in Ayurveda is based on Karya-Karana Siddhanta. Satkaryavada is an independent view of Samkhyas regarding Karya-Karana. According to this principle, the Karya is present in Karana in subtle form before its manifestation. All the Karyas are possible only by the Sat Karana (existent cause). On this ground a hypothesis has been formulated and applied. The hypothesis was that since Karana is present in a drug it will perform the Karma. The clinical study was planned to study the Anulomana Karma of Haritaki in patients of Anaha. The drug was used in 38 patients. These were divided into two groups. In group "A" 26 patients were provided with haritaki tablet, while in group "B" 12 patients were provided with placebo tablets. In group "A" 7.69% of patients got complete relief, followed by 38.46% patients who got marked relief; 42.31% of patients got moderate relief, while 11.54% patients got mild relief. Group A showed highly significant results in comparison to group B.
  - 2,451 517
Fundamental approach in the management of Drava Bahula Amlapitta with Bhringaraja (Eclipta alba)
Hemant Pol, Sharda More, Mahesh Kumar Vyas, Hitesh Vyas, B Ravishankar
October-December 2011, 32(4):512-517
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96125  PMID:22661846
The disease Amlapitta has been selected for the clinical trials because it presents two type of manifestations depending upon the involvement of Agni (Ushnagunadhikya) and Jala (Dravagunadhikya) Mahabhuta. The present research work was focused at Drava Guna, with an aim to assess the efficacy of a drug with quality of Ruksha and Ushna predominance like Bhringaraja in treating Amlapitta with Pitta Drava Guna Vriddhi. Randomized open clinical trials were conducted on 22 patients of Amlapitta who were screened on the basis of clinical findings and allocated in to two groups. The criteria for selection were the signs and symptoms of Dravagunadhikya Amlapitta, irrespective of sex, religion, etc. Group A consisting of 15 cases received the trial drug Bhringaraja tablet (4 Tab. two times, 1 tablet=500 mg) and 7 cases in Group B received rice powder tablet as a placebo (4 Tab. two times, 1 tablet=500 mg) for 4 weeks. Special scoring pattern was adopted for the assessment of Amlapitta. Routine pathological tests such as blood, urine, stool, etc. were also carried out. In Group A, 55.33% patients showed marked improvement, whereas moderate improvement was observed in 26.67% patients. Complete cure was found in 06.67% of the patients and mild improvement in the chief complaints was observed in 13.33% patients. All the selected symptoms showed statistically significant results (P<0.01) except the Vidbheda in treated Group A, while in Group B, all symptoms showed statistically insignificant results except the Utklesha and Amlodgara. Total effect of the therapy showed statistically significant effect of the test drug . These results support the hypothesis.
  - 2,555 441
An open clinical trial to analyze Samyak Snigdha Lakshana of Shodhananga Snehapana with Mahatikthakam Ghritam in Psoriasis
Rajkala Ramteke, G Vinodkumar, T Meharjan
October-December 2011, 32(4):519-524
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96126  PMID:22661847
An open clinical trial was conducted in Govt. Ayurveda College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, Department of Kayachikitsa and Panchakarma. As there is no work done on the Samyak Snigdha Lakshana (SSL), this study was undertaken to work on the different aspects of Samyak Snigdha Lakshana. To minimize variables, subjects suffering with psoriasis and same Ghritam were selected on the basis of strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Shodhananga Abhyantara Snehapana was advised before Vamana and Virechana. Samyak Snigdha Lakshanas which are described in all texts are different in milieu. Shodhananga Snehapana with Mahatiktakam Ghritam was given according to Koshta and Agni in 30 subjects. Samyak Snigdha Lakshanas were assessed using a special scoring pattern and the biochemical parameters were observed in all subjects. Statistical analysis using paired't' test were done. In all patients Vatanulomana, Diptagni, Snehodvega, Klama and Adhastat Sneha Darshanam were seen; whereas Angalaghava and Twak Snigdhata were noted in less percentage of persons. The onset of various Samyak Snigdha Lakshanas occurs in sequence. There are changes in some biochemical parameters like serum cholesterol, Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and fat globules in stool after Snehapana. Shodhananga Snehapana with Mahatikthakam Ghritam decrease features of psoriasis up to some extent. More in depth studies are required to evaluate their importance and for their application in modern medical practice.
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Clinical efficacy of Shilajatu (Asphaltum) processed with Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.) in Sthaulya (obesity)
Ranjan K Pattonder, HM Chandola, SN Vyas
October-December 2011, 32(4):526-531
PMID:22661848
Obesity is defined as the condition in which excessive amount of fat is accumulated in the body. Classical Ayurvedic texts describe eight types of despicable designated as 'Nindita purusha' including atisthaulya. Corpulent people are characterized by short in longevity, slow movement, difficult to indulge in sex, weak, emission of bad body odor, profuse perspiration, excessive hunger and excessive thirst. Sixty to seventy percent of cardiac patients die of obesity and contribute to develop coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, 66 patients of obesity were treated with Shilajatu processed with Agnimantha. After complition of therapy, 5.09 ± 0.24 kg and 2.06 ± 0.10 kg/m 2 reduction of body weight and body mass index, respectively were noted. The result was found to be statistically highly significant (P<0.001). No adverse effects were observed in any of the treated patients.
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PERSONNEL COMMUNICATIONS
Personnel communications
CK Katiyar
October-December 2011, 32(4):596-596
PMID:22661863
  - 1,240 268
PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION
Study on Bhasma Kalpana with special reference to the preparation of Kasisa Bhasma
Dhirajsingh Sumersingh Rajput, GS Tekale
October-December 2011, 32(4):554-559
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96133  PMID:22661854
Bhasma means ash but according to Ayurveda, Bhasma means conversion of a metal into a form which is irreversible in the sense that one cannot derive the metal back from it again (Apunarbhava). It should be so light so that it must float on the surface of water after sprinkling, called Varitara. Its particle should be so small that it can enter in to the creases of fingers called Rekha-purnatva. The preparative procedure of Bhasma is a bit complicated. Many texts are available regarding the identification, acceptable qualities of metals and minerals, their purification, uses and method of preparation of their Bhasma. But in many texts, the method of Bhasma preparation of some metals and minerals is mentioned very briefly, i.e. their references are available in Sutrarupa. This leads to many practical difficulties in the preparation of Bhasma. Kasisa Bhasma is one of them. The present work was aimed to study the basic concept of Bhasma Kalpana by means preparing Kasisa Bhasma. This study suggests some modifications and ways for standardization of Bhasma procedure.
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Standardization of Shirishavaleha with reference to physico-chemical characteristics
Shyamlal Singh Yadav, Galib , BJ Patgiri, VJ Shukla, PK Prajapati
October-December 2011, 32(4):560-571
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96134  PMID:22661855
Ten batches of Shirishavaleha were prepared by using Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) of Shirisha [Albizzia lebbeck Benth]. The adopted formulation was based on Shirisharishta of Bhaishajya Ratnavali. Though Shirisharishta has significant therapeutic effect in cases of Tamaka swasa, etc.; it has few difficulties during the pharmaceutical procedure like consuming long time, climatic influences etc. Considering these inconveniencies, the formulation composition has been converted in to Shirishavaleha. Avaleha has been prepared by using Twak and Sara of Shirisha. No significant differences were found in pharmaceutical aspects of both the samples of Shirishavaleha and the current method of preparation can be considered as standard. Attempts were also made to develop analytical profile of avaleha, which were almost similar in both the samples, except showing more Rf values in High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography profile of Sara group.
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Physico-chemical analysis of a Herbo-mineral compound Mehamudgara vati - A pilot study
Ila Tanna, S. M. S. Samarakoon, HM Chandola, VJ Shukla
October-December 2011, 32(4):572-575
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96136  PMID:22661857
Efforts have been made to lay down analytical standards for Mehamudgara vati (MMV), which were not found reported till date. Weight variation showed that 90% tablets of MV manufactured in the Gujarat Ayurved University Pharmacy were within acceptable range (323 mg ± 10%), pH 4.58, and disintegration time 17 min, whereas hardness was 1.25 kg/cm 2 . Loss on drying was found to be 9.3% w/w, acid insoluble ash was 0.9 %w/w, water soluble extract was 24.06% w/w and methanol soluble extract 14.1% w/w. Determination of iron as Fe 2 O 3 was done as Lauha bhasma being the major ingredient of MMV. The result showed that iron content was reduced in the formulation (28.67%) as compared to that in Lauha bhasma (61.19%). In TLC, 5 spots each at 254 nm and 366 nm were found.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
A critical review of antiquity, authorship and contents of Haramekhala: A medieval work on humanities
I Archana, Jeddu Ganapathi Bhat
October-December 2011, 32(4):461-465
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96116  PMID:22661837
Ayurvedic science of life is one of the great contributions of India to the systems of health science. Apart from classical medical works, much information related to this Indian system is found elsewhere in other branches of science, such as Philosophy, Joutishya, Natya, Kavya, etc. Still much Ayurvedic information is clubbed in other compilations meant for general purpose. However, it is unfortunate that not all such works came into lime light; and still remain in the dark for many reasons. Haramekhala written by Mahuka is one such work, which contains Ayurvedic information along with various other themes, such as cosmetics. The author Mahuka lived in Dharanivaraha rajya of central India during Chapa Dynasty in 9 th -10 th century A.D. Haramekhala also known as Prayogamala comprises of five Paricchedas written in Prakrita language, later added by translations in Sanskrit called Chaya and foot notes in Sanskrit called Tika. The detail about this book is described in this article.
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Ritucharya : Answer to the lifestyle disorders
Jayesh Thakkar, S Chaudhari, Prasanta K Sarkar
October-December 2011, 32(4):466-471
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.96117  PMID:22661838
Ritu , the season, classified by different features expresses different effects on the body as well as the environment. Ayurveda has depicted various rules and regimens (Charya), regarding diet and behavior to acclimatize seasonal enforcement easily without altering body homeostasis. The prime principle of Ayurvedic system of medicine is preventive aspect, can be achieved by the change in diet and practices in response to change in climatic condition. This is a very important aspect of preventive medicine as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Lifestyle disorders are very common in the present era, basically originating from lack of following seasonal regimens due to lack of concentration in seasonal characteristics. A firm scientific analysis is the base, which holds true even on date. In this review article, various regimens in diet and lifestyle as mentioned in the classics of Ayurveda and their importance on lifestyle disorders has been discussed.
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