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   2011| April-June  | Volume 32 | Issue 2  
    Online since February 2, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Efficacy of leech therapy in the management of osteoarthritis (Sandhivata)
PK Rai, AK Singh, OP Singh, NP Rai, AK Dwivedi
April-June 2011, 32(2):213-217
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92589  PMID:22408305
Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) is the most common joint disorder. It mostly affects cartilage. The top layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away. Osteoarthritis is of two types, primary (idiopathic) and secondary. In idiopathic osteoarthritis, the most common form of the disease, no predisposing factor is apparent. Secondary OA is pathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic OA but is attributable to an underlying cause. In Ayurveda the disease Sandhivata resembles with osteoarthritis which is described under Vatavyadhi. The NSAIDs are the main drugs of choice in modern medicine which have lots of side effects and therefore are not safe for long-term therapy. Raktamokshan, i.e., blood letting is one of the ancient and important parasurgical procedures described in Ayurveda for treatment of various diseases. Of them, Jalaukavacharana or leech therapy has gained greater attention globally, because of its medicinal values. The saliva of leech contains numerous biologically active substances, which have antiinflammatory as well as anesthetic properties. Keeping this view in mind we have started leech therapy in the patients of osteoarthritis and found encouraging results.
  6,354 835 7
REVIEW ARTICLES
Prakriti -based medicine: A step towards personalized medicine
Bijoya Chatterjee, Jigisha Pancholi
April-June 2011, 32(2):141-146
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92539  PMID:22408293
The concept of personalized medicine has been around for as long as people have been practicing medicine. From Charaka to Hippocrates, all have practiced the personalized approach for treating a disease. In the 21 st century, personalized medicine is all about DNA. Whereas the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and epigenetic factors influence drug response and form the basis of personalized medicine, the tridosha theory forms the basis of Prakriti-based medicine. It is well established by now that western allopathic medicine is excellent in handling acute medical crises, whereas Ayurveda has successfully demonstrated an ability to manage chronic disorders that Western medicine has been unable to cure. With effective integration of 'omics' Prakriti-based medicine can play a vital role in this changing scenario of global health wisdom as Ayurveda offers its modalities by way of ahara (diet), vihara (lifestyle), and aushadhi (medication), which are the three pillars of prakriti-based medicine making it a holistic science. Prakriti-based medicine and other traditional medicine systems have the potential to offer remedies to the challenging health issues like adverse drug reactions, drug withdrawals, and economic disparities among few. An integrative global approach could do wonders to health sciences benefiting a broad spectrum of patients.
  5,853 1,215 10
PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION
Evaluation of comparative free-radical quenching potential of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and Mandookparni (Centella asiatica)
Sourav Mukherjee, Swapnil Dugad, Rahul Bhandare, Nayana Pawar, Suresh Jagtap, Pankaj K Pawar, Omkar Kulkarni
April-June 2011, 32(2):258-264
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92549  PMID:22408313
Ayurvedic texts describe rejuvenate measures called Rasayana to impart biological sustenance to bodily tissues. Rasayana acting specifically on brain are called Medhya Rasayana. Brahmi is one of the most commonly practiced herbs for the same. Yet there exist a controversy regarding the exact plant species among Bacopa monnieri L. Penn (BM) and Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (CA) to be used as Brahmi in the formulations. Though the current literature available has suggested a very good nootropic potential of both the drugs, none of the studies have been carried out on comparative potential of these herbs to resolve the controversy. Free-radical scavenging potential for these plants is studied to find out their comparative efficacy. The study revealed a very good in vitro free-radical scavenging properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both the plants as evidenced by FRAP, DPPH, reducing power, and antilipid peroxidation assays. It can be concluded from the studies that both the plants, although taxonomically totally different at family level, showed similar type of in vitro activities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also revealed a significant similarity in the two plants. The in vitro study supports the Ayurvedic concept of BM and CA having a similar potential.
  5,579 838 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Comparative clinical evaluation of Kshara Sutra ligation and hemorrhoidectomy in Arsha (hemorrhoids)
Meva Lal Gupta, SK Gupta, Chaturbhuja Bhuyan
April-June 2011, 32(2):225-229
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92591  PMID:22408307
Arsha (hemorrhoids) is engorgement of the hemorrhoidal venous plexus, characterized by bleeding per rectum, constipation, pain, prolapse and discharge. It is manifested due to improper diet, prolonged standing and faulty habits of defecation causing derangement of tridosha, mainly vata dosha. Vitiated dosha localizes in guda vali, pradhana dhamani and mansdhara kala and vitiates twak, mansa, meda and rakta, resulting in the annavaha sroto dushti. Modern management of arsha needs, mainly, a surgical approach, i.e. hemorrhoidectomy, wherein the result was found to be less satisfactory. In this regard, to determine a solution for satisfactory cure, the kshara sutra ligation method in arsha was studied in comparison with hemarrhoidectomy. Kshara sutra ligation in arsha was employed in 35 patients, and 26 patients were dealt with hemorrhoidectomy. The study revealed a better result of the kshara sutra ligation-treated group in comparison with hemorrhoidectomy. The observations revealed that maximum advantages like minimum hospital stay, no bleeding during or after operation, no post-operative anal stenosis, a low cost-effective and more acceptable to different categories of people, etc. were recorded in the kshara sutra-treated group. Statistically, kshara sutra ligation for arsha was found to be highly significant and effective management. No adverse effects were noted during the follow-up period.
  5,287 588 1
Protective effect of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies
Debabrata Das, SK Agarwal, HM Chandola
April-June 2011, 32(2):196-199
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92579  PMID:22408302
One of the very common side effects of Radiation/Chemotherapy especially of the head and neck malignancies is mucositis. Cancer therapy or the cancer itself may cause changes in the body chemistry that results in loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and very common mucositis which makes eating difficult. Loss of appetite is followed by an undesirable loss of weight due to insufficient amount of calories every day which can lead to loss of muscle mass and strength and other complications by causing interruptions of medical therapy, impeding effective cancer therapy. Mucositis cause decreased immunity and quality of life as well as poor tolerance to surgery and altered efficacy of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. The present study is designed with the objective to minimize the radiation induced mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, change in voice etc. with an Ayurvedic preparation Yashtimadhu Ghrita (processed ghee). Total 75 patients were randomly divided into four groups and drugs were administered: Group A with local application of Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity for few minutes prior to radiotherapy along with oral intake of Yashtimadhu Ghrita; Group B with only local application of the Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity; Group C patients administered with only local application of honey in the oral cavity; Group D on conventional modern medication controlled group. All these patients under four groups had received Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for maximum duration of 7 weeks. Mucositis and Skin reactions were observed in 100% of patients with varying degree. The intensity of Radiation and Chemotherapy induced mucositis was reduced to a great extent by the trial drug. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) can be used effectively in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis post radiation and chemotheraphy in patients of cancer, especially of the head and neck region. It proves beneficial in two ways: (i) there were no interruptions in the treatment, and (ii) food intake was not severely affected leading to maintenance of nutritional status of the patients.
  4,600 927 13
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES
Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaves of certain Phyllanthus species used as a botanical source of Bhumyamalaki in Ayurveda
Surendra K Sharma, MA Sheela
April-June 2011, 32(2):250-253
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92552  PMID:22408311
Today, World over, there is a great deal of interest in Ayurvedic system of medicine and thus the demand for various medicinal plants in the production of Ayurvedic medicines is ever increasing. Due to varied geographical locations where these plants grow, a great deal of adulteration or substitution is encountered in the commercial markets. Histological studies of the plant drugs are not only to study the adulterants but also are indispensable in accurate identification. Microscopic observations of the Phyllanthus species revealed the occurrence of anisocytic and paracytic type of stomata in Phyllanthus amarus, while only anisocytic type of stomata is present in P. fraternus and P. maderaspatensis. Epidermal cell walls of P. amarus and P. fraternus are wavy and straight walled epidermal walls are observed in P. maderaspatensis. In India all the above-mentioned species of Phyllanthus are called " Bhumyamalaki" and they are being used in the treatment of various liver disorders. However, all the species of Phyllanthus doesn't have the active constituents responsible for the treatment of liver disorders. In the present investigation by using simple micro techniques accurate identification of different species of Phyllanthus has been established.
  3,998 519 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
A clinical study of Devadarvyadi-Vati on Grahani Dosha in children
Rutu V Patel, VK Kori, KS Patel
April-June 2011, 32(2):187-191
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92568  PMID:22408300
Childhood period is considered as the period of rapid growth and development, as it is the crucial stage of establishing future. Gastro-intestinal disorders show high prevalence in pediatric practice. These conditions generally produce chronic illness. Grahani Dosha is a disease related with Agnidushti. This condition is seen more in childhood period due to faulty dietary habit and changing lifestyle. The present paper deals with study on etiopathogenesis of Grahani Dosha and evaluates the efficacy of Deavadarvyadi-Vati. The etiological factors and symptoms were observed carefully to make clear etiopathogenesis. Total 32 patients (3-12 years) were registered and randomly divided into two groups. In Group A Devadarvyadi-Vati (treated group) and in Group B Bhunimbadi-Vati (control group) given for 4 weeks with Koshna Jala. In Group A (Devadarvyadi-Vati), marked improvement was observed in 21.43% of the patients, moderate improvement was observed in 57.14% of patients and mild improvement was observed in 21.43% of patients.
  3,915 473 -
Evaluation of diet and life style in etiopathogenesis of senile dementia: A survey study
Kundan Chaudhuri, S. M. S. Samarakoon, HM Chandola, Rajesh Kumar, B Ravishankar
April-June 2011, 32(2):171-176
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92554  PMID:22408297
Mind and body are inseparable entities and influences each other until death. Many factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, negative thoughts, unhealthy life style, unwholesome diet etc., disturb mental and physical wellbeing. Senile dementia is the mental deterioration, i.e, loss of intellectual ability associated with old age. It causes progressive deterioration of mental faculties, e.g., memory, intellect, attention, thinking, comprehension and personality, with preservation of normal level of consciousness. Two major types of senile dementia have been identified, namely that due to generalized atrophy in the cortical area of the brain (Alzheimer's type) and that due to vascular disorders mainly due to stroke. According to DSM-IV (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders), the essential feature of dementia is the development of multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment and at least one of the following cognitive disturbances such as aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or a disturbance in executive function. For the present study, a standardized questionnaire in the form of proforma incorporating types of foods (madhura, amla and lavana rasayukta ahara etc.) and life style (divaswapna, ratrijagarana and manasika bhavas etc) is prepared. To assess manasika bhava, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, and standardized gradations of anumana pariksha of manasika bhavas mentioned by Charaka at Vimana Sthana 4/8 were adopted. In this study, most of the patients had disturbed sleep, tendency to indulge in defective dietary habits and kapha vitiating diets and life style. On Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, patients had anxiety, tension, depression, difficulty in concentration, and memory. On Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, these patients had anxiety, depression, and hypochondriasis. On Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, psychological factors affected include: anxiety, depression, somatic concern and tension, etc. The data reflects that unwholesome diet and disturbed mental health plays an important role in etiopathogenesis of senile dementia.
  3,635 718 4
PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH
The effect of Emblica officinalis diet on lifespan, sexual behavior, and fitness characters in Drosophila melanogaster
Pankaj Pathak, BR Guru Prasad, N Anjaneya Murthy, SN Hegde
April-June 2011, 32(2):279-284
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92544  PMID:22408317
Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Duncan's multiple range test and ANOVA, there is a significant difference between two cultures. It was also noticed that E. officinalis influence some fitness characters in Drosophila along with sexual behavior.
  3,431 494 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Clinical effect of Nirgundi Patra pinda sweda and Ashwagandhadi Guggulu Yoga in the management of Sandhigata Vata (Osteoarthritis)
Alpesh Joshi, Charmi S Mehta, Alankruta R Dave, VD Shukla
April-June 2011, 32(2):207-212
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92588  PMID:22408304
Sandhigata Vata is one among the 80 Nanatmaja Vata Vyadhies. Sandhigata Vata and Osteoarthritis have common symptoms, and hence, both are considered as similar entities by a majority of Ayurvedic scholars and same has been adopted here. Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease among human beings today. In this study, a total of 116 patients were registered, out of them 101 patients had completed the full course of treatment, while 15 patients left against medical advice. The 101 patients of Sandhigata Vata were treated in two groups. Group A: In this group 50 patients of Sandhigata Vata were treated with Nirgundi Patra pinda sweda for 21 days and Ashwagandhadi Guggulu Yoga 3 g/day for 45 days was given orally. Group B : In this group 51 patients of Sandhigata Vata were treated with only Ashwagandhadi Guggulu Yoga 3 g/day for 45 days. To assess the effect of the therapy objectively, all the signs and symptoms of Sandhigata Vata were given a score, depending upon their severity. Also functional tests like walking time, climbing stairs, and joint movement, were measured as a criteria for assessment. Both the groups showed good results, but Group B showed better results in comparison to group A.
  3,291 606 2
A study on Vasantika Vamana (therapeutic emesis in spring season) - A preventive measure for diseases of Kapha origin
Santoshkumar Bhatted, VD Shukla, Anup Thakar, NN Bhatt
April-June 2011, 32(2):181-186
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92562  PMID:22408298
Panchakarma is the most essential part of Ayurveda treatments. It is preventive, preservative, promotive, curative and rehabilitative therapy. Ayurveda believes in strong relationship between macrocosm and microcosm and states that the seasonal changes will influence the biological systems resulting into the accumulation and aggravation of particular Dosha in a particular season like accumulation and aggravation of Kapha in Hemant Rutu (winter season) and Vasant Rutu (spring season) respectively, accumulation and aggravation of Pitta in Varsha Rutu (rainy season) and Sharad Rutu (autumn season) respectively. Vasantika Vamana is done in spring season approximately in the month of March and April for the elimination of vitiated Kapha Dosha which in turn helps to prevent the forth coming Kapha disorders and associated Pitta disorders or diseases originating or settled in the place of Kapha like bronchial asthma, allergic bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, migraine, hyperacidity, indigestion, anorexia, obesity, overweight, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, acne vulgaris, psoriasis, eczema, urticaria etc. In this study, a total of 89 persons were registered and 69 volnteers/patients undergone classical Vamana Karma without any major complications. Average minimum, maximum, total dose and total days of Snehapana were 36.40 ml, 187.21 ml, 578.59 ml and 5.01 days respectively. Average quantity of Madanaphala, Ksheera, Yashtimadhu Phanta and Lavanodaka was 5.81 g, 1130.29 ml, 3202.9 and 2489.13 ml respectively. The results were encouraging; hence, further studies may be conducted including large population in this direction.
  3,142 712 2
Clinical evaluation of Vardhamana Pippali Rasayana in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Anamika Soni, Kalapi Patel, SN Gupta
April-June 2011, 32(2):177-180
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92555  PMID:22408299
Amavata is described as a difficult to cure (Krichhrasadhya) disease in Ayurveda. Pain in joints with swelling is a cardinal feature of this disease. It can be correlated with rheumatoid arthritis described in modern medical science. In conventional medical science, steroids and some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for its management, but they cause certain dangerous side effects in the patients. Ayurveda promises an excellent therapy for it. The present clinical trial was conducted with the same objective to provide a safe, economical and effective therapy to the patients of Amavata. The present study was conducted in 73 patients having classical symptoms of Amavata. The patients were given Vardhamana Pippali Rasayana for 15 days. Patients with any other acute or chronic systemic illness or infection were excluded from the study. The observations and results obtained were analyzed statistically applying the "t" test. All the patients experienced up to 50% relief from the signs and symptoms of Amavata after the therapy. The drug might have produced its beneficial effects in the patients of Amavata due to its Agnideepana, Amapachana, Vatashamaka and Rasayana effects in the body. A significant decrease in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in all the patients was also noticed. All the results obtained were highly significant statistically. Thus, it can be implicated that the Vardhamana Pippali Rasayana has a lot of beneficial effects in the patients of Amavata.
  2,998 606 -
A survey on etiopathological correlation of Krimi (intestinal helminths) and Pandu (anemia)
VG Tengse, MS Baghel, SN Vyas, JR Joshi
April-June 2011, 32(2):165-170
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92543  PMID:22408296
A survey study was aimed to find etiopathological status of intestinal helminths and also to accomplish its association with clinical condition Pandu. The survey samples included population of five schools and two localities in and around Jamnagar. The study was conducted on 337 subjects, of whom 36.20% cooperated to give stool samples to pathology laboratory; more than half of the samples surveyed were suffering with various parasitic infestations and one-third of the total subjects were found at risk to develop Pandu. Ascariasis patients were found in 71.14%, a potent cause of Pandu. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 19.05%, while Hymenolepis nana in 6.35%. 77.77% were in the age group of 10 to 20 years, 58.73% were male, 93.65% patients were Hindu, 80.95% of the patients had secondary level of education, dominancy of rural habitat was in 77.77%, and 39.68% each were from lower and lower middle class.
  2,986 467 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Ayurveda and herbs in dental health
Rajiv Saini, Sugandha Sharma, Santosh Saini
April-June 2011, 32(2):285-286
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92542  PMID:22408318
  2,551 612 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
A clinical study on the role of Ksara Vasti and Triphala Guggulu in Raktarsha (Bleeding piles)
Raakhi Mehra, Renu Makhija, Neera Vyas
April-June 2011, 32(2):192-195
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92572  PMID:22408301
Shonitarsha is a common affliction which has been described and treated since the beginning of human civilization. Hemorrhoidal cushions are a part of normal anatomy but become pathological when swollen or inflamed. Treatment of piles in modern medicine is hemorrhoidectomy which results in repeated recurrences. Ayurveda provides a cure and prevents recurrences. Present study was carried out using a combination of Apamarga Kshara Basti and Triphalaguggulu. The results of the clinical assessment of the indigenous formulation on 129 patients with bleeding piles are reported in this paper; 55 patients of a total of 129 showed marked relief.
  2,571 573 2
Clinical evaluation of Basti administered by Basti Putak (Pressure method), Enema pot method (Gravity fed method), and syringe method in Kshinashukra (Oligozoospermia)
Yashwant M Juneja, Anup B Thakar
April-June 2011, 32(2):234-240
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92593  PMID:22408309
The objective of this study was to determine which method of administration of Basti is more efficacious. The study design was open randomized clinical trial and main outcome measures are Administration time, Retention time, Pervasion of Basti, Semenogram study, and Sexual parameters. The result: Sperm count was increased by 70.75% in Basti putak group and 54.07% in Enema pot group. Overall average retention time of Asthapana Basti and Anuvasana Basti was 1.5 times more in Basti putak group than the Enema pot group. The conclusion of this study was that Basti putak is more efficacious than Enema pot method.
  2,655 479 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Comparative studies of Bhanumati and Nibandha Samgraha with special reference to Arista Vijnana (prognostic science)
Pradip Kumar Goswami
April-June 2011, 32(2):147-153
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92540  PMID:22408294
Ayurveda is serving the mankind for centuries with a holistic approach. This system has preached to treat the diseases which are only curable by the physicians. It has advised the physicians to strictly avoid treating the incurable diseases. In order to assess the incurability of the diseases or the incurable state of a patient; this system has preached the signs and symptoms of incurability which are known as arista-vijnana, which have been described in Brhattrayi of Ayurveda. Though Caraka has placed them in a separate section of his treatise, Cakrapani and Dalhana have also spent a considerable portion in their commentaries dealing with arista-vijnana. They were two renowned scholars who have commented with a depth of wisdom on Susruta Samhita. In this paper, the author has tried to present the comparative and critical comments of both commentators based on Bhanumati and Nibandha Samgraha, respectively, over arista-vijnana as described in Sutrasthana of Susruta Samhita. Dalhana was greatly influenced by Caraka Samhita with regard to the prognostic science. On the other hand, Cakrapani repeatedly recognized the superiority of the indriya-sthana of Caraka Samhita with regard to analysis of prognostic science.
  2,616 473 -
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES
Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf of Cordia macleodii Hook., An ethnomedicinally important plant
Bhargav Bhide, A. P. G. Pillai, VJ Shukla, RN Acharya
April-June 2011, 32(2):254-257
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92551  PMID:22408312
Plants of ethnomedicinal importance have contributed for the development of many new pharmacologically effective molecules/chemical entities to modern medicine. India, the country having one of the richest biodiversity of its flora in its forest, with numerous tribal inhabitants, is able to contribute a lot from ethnomedicine to the ailing humanity. Cordia macleodii Hook. (Boraginaceae), an ethnomedicinal plant has been highlighted for its wound healing, aphrodisiac and hepatoprotective activities. It is a medium-sized tree, known as Panki/Shikari by the tribals, rarely found in the forests of Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. So far, the plant has been studied neither for its pharmacognostical characters nor for its pharmacological actions except its hepatoprotective activity. Hence, it has been selected for a detailed investigation which includes pharmacognostic study of its leaf to find out the diagnostic characters and preliminary physicochemical analysis. Results of the study will help in identifying the plant pharmacognostically. Presence of alkaloids, glycosides and tannins were found during the study.
  2,483 384 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Conceptual and applied study of Snigdha and Ruksa Guna with special reference to Rasa-raktagata Sneha (hyperlipidemia)
Sangram Mishra, RR Dwivedi, B Ravishankar
April-June 2011, 32(2):200-206
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92586  PMID:22408303
Ayurveda as well as Philosophy accepted the Guna as the basic entity of the Sristi. The Maha Gunas, i.e., Sattva, Raja, and Tama are the prime energy, from where the universe evolves, along with human beings. Dravya and Guna both have a Samavayi relationship in which Gunas reside in Dravya and have a secondary place to it. Guna has multifold meanings according to its use, in social, cultural, philosophical, and literary fields. The concepts of Ayurveda are expressed with Gunas. Samanya and Visesa are usually expressed in terms of Gunas; the classification, description, and function of Dravyas depends upon Guna; Karmas are manifested forms of Guna and Samavaya is the eternal, intimate relation of Dravya and Guna. The principles like Triskandha (Hetu, linga, ousadhi) of Ayurveda also narrated by Gunas, Hetus are narrated in the terms of Guna; the Laksanas are the reflections in the status of Gunas of bodily elements, and Cikitsa is in the form of administration of Viparita Gunas. The increased elements are treated by opposite Guna. So if Ruksa Guna is increased then it is to be managed by Snigdha Guna and vice-versa. So diseases can be treated by applying the Gunas, and drugs for the required patient can be selected by applying these Gunas. In support of the above concept, a study on the persons of Rasa-raktagata Sneha (hyperlipidemia) has been carried out assuming that the condition is an increased state of Snigdha Guna and treatment is done using Ruksa property drugs. Patients were divided into two groups, i.e., treatment group (Ruksa Guna drugs) and control group (placebo). The results were assessed after 45 days with the help of a specially prepared pro forma. All the important hematological, biochemical, and urine investigations were done. According to subjective and objective criteria, significant results were found for Group A as compared to Group B.
  2,343 488 -
Clinical evaluation of Kushmanda Ghrita in the management of depressive illness
Rajni Chandre, BN Upadhyay, K. H. H. V. S. S. Narasimha Murthy
April-June 2011, 32(2):230-233
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92592  PMID:22408308
Depressive illness has been considered as a problematic mental illness since antiquity. The treatment modalities of depressive illness are of many kinds. Use of Medhya Rasayana drugs is a unique method of treatment described in Ayurveda for depressive illness. Kushmanda (Benincasa hispida) is one of the Medhya Rasayana as described by Bhava Mishra. Ghrita is also considered as Medhya Rasayana by almost all Acharyas. Keeping this background Kushmanda Ghrita has been selected as a trial drug to treat the patients of depressive illness. The study was carried out in 35 clinically diagnosed cases of depressive illness by using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of depressive illness. All patients were given 20 ml of Kushmanda Ghrita in two divided doses morning and evening with 40 ml of lukewarm water for a period of one month. It has shown statistically significant results with psychometric parameters-Hamilton depression rating scale (t = 24.36, P < 0.001), Hamilton anxiety rating scale (t = 26.20, P < .001), immediate memory span direct (t = 4.35, P < 0.001), and indirect test (t = 3.43, P < 01) along with clinical symptoms.
  2,280 542 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
A comprehensive outlook of Sannipata
Asit K Panja, Abichal Chattopadhyaya, Supriyo Chaudhuri
April-June 2011, 32(2):154-164
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92541  PMID:22408295
Nomenclature of the disease on the basis of vitiation of the body humors is stressed in ayurveda. Sannipatika, i.e., 'conglomeration of vitiated tridosa' is the final stage of process of manifestation of disease. In this specific state of pathogenesis, the disease becomes more advance and mostly irreversible. A detailed scientific study of Sannipatika-avastha has been documented in classics. Comprehensive analysis of sannipata-state and its ways of presentation is the main theme of the current article.
  2,258 520 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Clinical efficacy of "Bhadra Mustadi Paste" and "Nagaradi Kwatha Gandusha" in Shitada (Gingivitis)
Rajshree Unadkat, Subrata De, R Manjusha
April-June 2011, 32(2):218-224
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92590  PMID:22408306
Shitada is one of the Dantamulagata Rogas mentioned by Acarya Susruta under the heading of Mukha Rogas. It is characterized by symptoms like spontaneous bleeding, halitosis, blackish discoloration of gums, and so on. The symptomatology of Shitada can be compared with gingivitis, which is caused mainly by the accumulation of debris, plaque, and calculus at the tooth margin due to ignorance of oral care. It can progress into periodontitis - the disease in which the firmness, contour, and position of the gums are altered and teeth become mobile. The prevalence of gingivitis is as high as 50% in most of the population. In the present study, a total of 33 patients were registered in three groups. Bhadramustadi yoga has been used in paste form for local application along with Nagaradi Kwatha Gandusa in Group A and in powder form for Pratisarana along with Nagaradi Kwatha Gandusa in Group B. In Group C (Control) Sphatika Jala was used. The patients were diagnosed and assessed on the basis of Ayurvedic as well as modern classical signs and symptoms. Further assessment was done with the different indices used in modern dentistry. All the signs and symptoms were given a score depending upon the severity, to assess the effect of the drugs objectively. The effect of therapy was highly significant in group A in most of the signs, symptoms, and indices; and in group B it was highly significant in some signs and symptoms.
  2,061 381 -
A clinical study on the role of Agnimanthadi compound in the management of Sthaulya (obesity)
Ravikant Goyal, Mandip Kaur, HM Chandola
April-June 2011, 32(2):241-249
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92553  PMID:22408310
Sthaulya (obesity) has become so common in the World's population that it is beginning to replace undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant contributor to ill health. It exacerbates a large number of health-related problems, both independently and in association with other diseases. Therefore, this study was carried out at PG Hospital, IPGT and RA, Jamnagar to evaluate effect of Agnimanthadi compound in the patients of Sthaulya. For this purpose 83 patients of Sthaulya were selected out of which 15 patients were dropped out. Remaining 68 patients were treated in two groups. Among these, 38 patients of Sthaulya were treated with Agnimanthadi compound administered orally in the dose of four capsules of 500 mg three times a day with lukewarm water before meal. Remaining 30 patients of Sthaulya were kept as placebo control and were administered orally two placebo capsules of 500 mg filled with starch, three times a day with lukewarm water before meal. The duration of the treatment in both the groups was 7 weeks with follow-up for 2 months. Analysis of overall effects of both the groups showed that Agnimanthadi compound provided markedly better reduction in weight, BMI and other signs and symptoms in the patients of obesity in comparison to the control group.
  1,925 439 -
PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Immunomodulatory activity of Vachadhatryadi Avaleha in albino rats
S Rajagopala, BK Ashok, B Ravishankar
April-June 2011, 32(2):275-278
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92546  PMID:22408316
The present study is carried out to evaluate the immuno-modulatory activity of Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha in albino rats. Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha was prepared by classical method and evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-medicated immunity in established experimental models. Test formulation was administered at the dose of 900 mg/kg and parameters like hemagglutination titer, ponderal changes, histopathology of immunological organs and immunological paw edema were recorded. Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha significantly enhanced antibody formation and moderately suppressed the immunological edema. The present study concludes that Vachadhatryadi Avaleha has immunopotentiating activity.
  1,950 391 -
EDITORIAL
Extending Ayurveda further….thinking beyond the possibilities…
HM Chandola
April-June 2011, 32(2):139-140
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92538  PMID:22408292
  1,829 476 -
PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION
Preparation of Dhatryarishta by Dhatri Swarasa and Dhatri Kwatha
Subhashchandra S Madavi, BJ Patgiri, PK Prajapati
April-June 2011, 32(2):265-270
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92548  PMID:22408314
Dhatryarishta has been described for the first time in Charaka Samhita, in the context of Panduroga. The same reference is available in Chakradatta, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, and Sahastrayogam too. Generally Dhatri Swarasa [Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)] is used in the preparation of Dhatryarishta as per classical reference, but fresh Amalaki is not available in every season, so in the present study, Amalaki Kwatha (decoction) is used instead of Swarasa. A total of 13 batches of Dhatryarishta were prepared, out of which nine batches were prepared with Dhatri Swarasa and four batches with Dhatri Kwatha. For Dhatryarishta prepared by using Dhatri Swarasa, three methods were applied and in Dhatryarishta prepared by using Dhatri Kwatha two methods were applied. The study revealed that Dhatryarishta could only be prepared by using Amalaki Swarasa as quoted in the classics and not by using Amalaki Kwatha.
  1,917 382 -
PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Pro blood clotting activity of Scoparia dulcis in rats
E. R. H. S. S. Ediriweera, J. R. A. C. Jayakody, WD Ratnasooriya
April-June 2011, 32(2):271-274
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.92547  PMID:22408315
Scoparia dulcis Linn (Family: Scrophulariaceae, Sinhala: WalKoththamalli) is a perennial herb growing in many tropical countries including Sri Lanka. Traditional Physicians in rural down south areas apply crushed S. dulcis plant on cuts and bruises to stop bleeding. S. dulcis may also have Rakta Sthambhana property. The study on effect of decoction (water extract) of S. dulcis on blood clotting time in rats was carried out to investigate this. Two groups of rats, 12 males and 42 females were used in this experimental study. Forty-two female rats were assigned into seven equal groups (n = 6/gp). Different doses of DE (25, 50, 100, 1000, 1500 mg/kg) (group 1-5) or 2 ml of distilled water (DW) (group 6) were orally administered. 0.1 ml of vitamin K was injected intramuscularly (group 7) as reference drug to seventh the group. Twelve male rats were assigned into two equal groups (n = 6/gp), 2 ml of distilled water (DW) and doses of DE (1500 mg/kg) were orally administered. Clotting time was determined on the Days 1, 2, and 7 using Lee and White method. In the DE treated groups with all doses, there was no reduction in clotting time on the Day 1 but a significant reduction of clotting time (P < 0.05) was observed on the Days 2 and 7. In the group treated with vitamin K, there was no significant reduction in clotting time on Day 1 or 2, but there was a significant reduction in clotting time on Day 7. It is concluded that S. dulcis has proclotting activity (rakthasthambhana property) and this was faster than vitamin K.
  1,752 294 -
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