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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2016
Volume 37 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 85-150

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EDITORIAL  

Potential of Ayurveda - An eye opener p. 85
Mahesh Kumar Vyas
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_192_17  
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INVITED ARTICLE Top

Ayurveda: Science of life, genetics, and epigenetics p. 87
Hari Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_220_16  
Ayurveda is a traditional system of medicine originated in the ancient Vedic times of India. This body of knowledge is found in well-documented texts such as the Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, and describes physiology and interrelated systems of the body, variations in human constitution, surgery, herbal use, and health-promoting recommendations. Ayurveda is translated as the “Science of Life;” Ayus = Life, and Veda = knowledge/science. The principles and treatment modalities have endured over time. For Ayurveda to be appreciated by Western medical researchers, this traditional system of medicine needs to be understood in terms of modern science. The current theories of physiology that support Ayurvedic approaches need to be explored. Herein, one approach of how the realm of epigenetics can help elucidate the mechanisms of Ayurveda has been described.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Salacia – The new multi-targeted approach in diabetics p. 92
Neera Vyas, Rakhi Mehra, Renu Makhija
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_134_13  
Salacia species plant has been used traditionally as an Ayurvedic medicine for diabetes mellitus. Studies over the past decades have shown its multi-targeted role in diabetics. In the present review article, various mechanisms of action of Salacia on diabetics are discussed in detail. Apart from the well-known action of decreasing postprandial glucose sugar by inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-pancreatic amylase, it also inhibits aldose reductase which otherwise results in microvascular complications. Importantly, its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist (such as thiazolidinediones, the insulin sensitizers) action increases the uptake of free fatty acid (FFA) and facilitates their storage in subcutaneous fat rather than the visceral fat. This reduces plasma FFA and insulin resistance. Furthermore, it increases the expression of and translocation to the cell surface of glucose transporter 1 and 4 receptors which result in glucose uptake by the liver and skeletal muscle and decreases plasma glucose levels. It also decreases inflammatory cytokines and increases adiponectin expression. Salacia as PPAR-α agonist (such as fibrates) has a role in the management of dyslipidemia. The activation of PPAR-α leads to the increased expression of lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-V and decrease in hepatic Apo-C-III. These actions lower plasma triglycerides in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein particles, thus liberating fatty acids, which are taken up and stored as fat in adipocytes. Salacia has been shown to suppress the overexpression of cardiac PPAR-α (similar to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers) and thereby preventing diabetic cardiomyopathy. It also suppresses the cardiac angiotensin II Type 1 receptors resulting in antihypertrophic and antifibrogenic effect.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Dhatakyadi Varti – An effective local treatment for Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy): A standard controlled randomized clinical trial p. 98
Nilofar Mohamad Shafi Shaikh, Laxmipriya Dei, Shilpa Donga
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_54_15  
Background: Pregnant women are more prone to vulvovaginitis which is a great challenge for obstetricians today. In Ayurveda, Upapluta Yonivyapad described by Acharya Charaka, Sharangadhara, and both Vagbhata can be compared to vulvovaginitis during pregnancy. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate efficacy of Dhatakyadi Varti in the management of Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy). Materials and Methods: A total of 80 female patients in the age group of 19–40 years were registered and divided into two groups. In Group A (n = 46), Dhatakyadi Varti was inserted intravaginally, and in Group B (n = 34), Clingen vaginal suppository was inserted intravaginally once at bed time for 14 days. The effect of therapy was assessed on the basis of relief in subjective and objective criteria, i.e., vaginal smear test. Results: In subjective parameters, such as Yoni Srava, Yoni Kandu, Yoni Vedana, Yoni Daha and Yoni Daurgandhya, better result was observed in trial Group A receiving Dhatakyadi Varti. Highly significant relief (P < 0.001) was observed in fungal infection, and significant relief (P = 0.005) was observed in Gram - negative bacterial infection and pus cells in Group A. In Group A, 34.88* patients had complete remission, marked improvement was found in 34.88* cases, and only 2.32* patients remained unchanged, while in Group B, 33.33* patients reported complete remission, marked improvement was found in 10* cases, and 20* patients remained unchanged. Conclusion: It was concluded from the clinical trial that Dhatakyadi Varti is highly effective in reducing subjective and objective variables of Upapluta Yonivyapad and can be introduced as a safe herbal therapy of vaginal discharge during pregnancy.
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Clinical evaluation of efficacy of Alambushadi Ghana Vati and Vaitarana Basti in the management of Amavata with special reference to rheumatoid arthritis p. 105
Prashant Sasane, Udai Raj Saroj, Ram Kishor Joshi
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_91_15  
The clinical presentation of Amavata closely mimics with the special variety of rheumatologic disorders called rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Ayurvedic approach toward the treatment of Amavata is the need of present era as no system is successful in providing the complete cure to this disease. Amavata is a challenging and a burning problem of medical science. Prevalence of RA is approximately 0.8* of the population. Due to wide spectrum of disease, much prevalence in the society, and lack of effective medicine, the disease had been chosen for the study. The aim of the research was to study the efficacy of Alambushadi Ghana Vati and Vaitarana Basti in the management of Amavata (RA). It was a single-center, randomized, open-clinical study. In the present study, 30 clinically diagnosed patients of Amavata were selected and randomly divided into two groups by lottery method. Alambushadi Ghana Vati was given in dose of two tablets (each 500 mg) three times in a day with lukewarm water after meal for 30 days, while Vaitarana Basti on alternate day (15 Basti) had been given simultaneously in the second group along with drug of first group. Statistical analysis was done using InStat GraphPad 3 Software. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test was used for the analysis of nonparametric data, while paired t-test was used for parametric data analysis and Mann–Whitney test and unpaired t-test were used for intergroup comparison. Statistically highly significant (HS) improvement was found in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and HS results were found in symptoms of Amavata when the Vaitarana Basti was used along with Alambushadi Ghana Vati. With excellent relief in 20* patients, significant relief in 60* patients, moderate relief in 13.33* patients, whereas mild relief in 6.66* patients. On comparing the effect of two therapies, it can be concluded that Group B (Alambushadi Ghana Vati and Vaitarana Basti) provided better relief than Group A (Alambushadi Ghana Vati) in most of the sign and symptom of the disease at significant level.
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Role of Virechana and Ashwatha Phala Churna in the management of Ksheena Shukra (oligozoospermia): A pilot study p. 113
Jitendra Nathabhai Varsakiya, Mandip Goyal, Anup Thakar, Bhupesh Patel
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_71_15  
Background: Infertility is the inability of a sexually active, noncontracepting couple to achieve spontaneous pregnancy in 1 year. Low sperm count (oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and is correlated with Ksheena Shukra (oligozoospermia). Shodhana procedures are to be performed before the administration of Vajikarana drugs, especially Virechana karma has been indicated in the cases of Shukra Dushti. The fruit of Ashwatha (Ficus religiosa Linn.) has been indicated in premature ejaculation and low sperm count. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Virechana and Ashwatha Phala Churna in the management of Ksheena Shukra (oligozoospermia). Materials and Methods: Eligible male participants between the age of 21 and 50 years, with sperm count <15 million/ml, received Ashwatha Phala Churna for 60 days in the dose of 3 g, after undergoing Virechana Karma. The primary outcomes measured were percentage changes in the seminal parameters and associated symptoms of Ksheena Shukra in comparison to baseline. Results: The Ashwatha Phala Churna administered after Virechana provided 59.78* increase in sperm count, 36.81* increase in semen volume, and 16.18* decrease in abnormal form of sperm and 91.34* of increase was reported in total sperm count after Virechana Karma which was also statistically significant. Conclusion: Overall assessment of the therapy showed that administration of Ashwatha Phala Churna after performing Virechana provided statistically significant improvement on seminal parameters, especially total sperm count.
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A comparative study of Shilajatu and Asanadi Ghana Vati in the management of Madhumeha w.s.r. to type-2 diabetes mellitus p. 120
Vandana Gupta, Bipin Bihari Keshari, SK Tiwari, K H. H. V. S. S Narasimha Murthy
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_211_15  
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is becoming an alarming problem for society nowadays causing impediment in normal life. Diabetes and its complications impose a major burden upon health-care facilities. Materials and Methods: In this study, 90 patients of Madhumeha (type-2 diabetes mellitus) were registered and randomly divided into two groups. Out of 90 registered patients, 80 patients completed the treatment. In Group A, cap. Shilajatu (500 mg twice daily) was given for 3 months and in Group B, Asanadi Ghana Vati (2 Vati twice daily) was given for 3 months. Aim: An attempt was made to evaluate and compare the efficacy of Shilajatu and Asanadi Ghana Vati in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The efficacy of therapy was assessed on the basis of improvement in sign and symptoms of diabetes mellitus, blood sugar level, and glycosylated hemoglobin Results: Statistically significant improvement was observed in sign and symptoms as well as on blood sugar level in both groups after the completion of treatment. Conclusion: Shilajatu and Asanadi Ghana Vati seem to be effective and completely safe for the management of Madhumeha (type-2 diabetes mellitus).
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Adjuvant effect of Chakshushya Rasayana with beta-blocker eye drops in the management of progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy: An open-label randomized controlled trial p. 125
KS Dhiman, Veeranagouda S Adhoor, Riju Agarwal, Amit J Mehta
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_30_16  
Introduction: Primary open angle glaucoma is an insidious and chronic vision-threatening eye ailment due to neuro-retino-optic nerve degeneration, which may be due to the raised intraocular pressure (IOP) or due to independent factors. Management of glaucoma is mainly concentrated on lowering IOP that requires lifetime topical medication, different ocular medicaments for lowering of IOP, and surgical interventions, but it has its own limitations to control the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), and this is the reason behind the use of alternative neuroprotective adjuvants. Aim: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Ayurvedic line of management of progressive GON. Materials and Methods: Ingredients of trial drug Vara Fort powder (Chakshushya Rasayana) were procured from the Institute Pharmacy, except Swarnamakshika Bhasma, which was purchased from Dhootapapeshwar Pharmaceuticals. The patients fulfilling inclusion criteria, attending outpatient and inpatient departments, irrespective of their sex, race, religion, occupation, etc., were selected and divided into two groups with open-labeled randomization. In Group A, in addition to betaxolol (0.1*) or timolol (0.5*) (non-iobrim), Chakshushya Rasayana 6 g/day orally with Triphala Ghrita and honey along with Koshtha-Shuddhi(body-microchannel clearing treatment) protocol was tried. Nasya (oleation through nasal route) with Jeevantyadi Taila and Tarpana (eye satiation) with Go-Ghrita were also performed. In Group B (control), brimonidine (iobrim) 0.2* eye drop was used for 3 months. Results: Significant improvement was observed in subjective parameters in Group A such as blurred vision, frequent change of presbyopic glasses, and delayed dark adaptation. Conclusion: Chakshushya Rasayana, if administered in a systematic approach along with a modern topical betaxolol or timolol eye drops, has a definite role in improving the lost retinal sensitivity as much as up to 12 dB in 3 months duration.
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Simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone by high-performance liquid chromatography in roots of eight Sida species p. 135
MD Subramanya, Sandeep R Pai, Gireesh M Ankad, Harsha V Hegde, Subarna Roy, SL Hoti
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_49_16  
Introduction: Sida L. is a medicinally important genus widely used in conventional systems of medicine in India. Aim: The present study aims toward simultaneous determination of two bioactive compounds vasicine and vasicinone in root extracts of eight Sida spp. from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Determination of vasicine and vasicinone was undertaken in methanolic root extracts (10* w/v) of Sida acuta, Sida cordata, Sida cordifolia, Sida rhombifolia, Sida spinosa, Sida indica, Sida retusa and Sida mysorensis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The standards were prepared with the concentration of mg/mL. Data were expressed as mean values of three reading and relative standard deviations. The separation was achieved on a Waters, Nova-Pack, C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) column, with acetonitrile - 0.1 M phosphate buffer-glacial acetic acid (15: 85: 1, v/v/v) as solvent system at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. The effluent was monitored using ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 300 nm. Results: Both calibration curves of standard showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.994). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for vasicine was 0.110 and 0.333 μg/mL and for vasicinone was 0.059 and 0.179 μg/mL respectively. The vasicine content was highest in S. cordifolia (9.891 ± 0.495 μg/100 mg) and vasicinone content was rich in S. cordata (33.013 ± 1.651 μg/100 mg.) The content of vasicinone was higher than vasicine. Conclusion: HPLC method provides simple, accurate, and reproducible quantitative analysis for simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone. Among the selected Sida species, S. cordifolia and S. cordata were found to be rich in the vasicine and vasicinone contents, respectively.
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Evaluation of analgesic and antipyretic activities of Mahanimba (Melia azedarach Linn.) leaf and root powder p. 140
Shweta Vekariya, K Nishteswar, Bhupesh R Patel, Mukesh Nariya
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_69_15  
Introduction: Mahanimba (Melia azedarach Linn.) is a deciduous tree of family Meliaceae and its root is mainly used in painful condition such as Gridhrasi (sciatica) in Ayurveda. Ethnomedicinal claims indicate that its leaves are used to treat fever, but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the potential analgesic and antipyretic activities of M. azedarach L. leaf powder (MLP) and M. azedarach L. root powder (MRP). Materials and Methods: The root and leaves of M. azedarach were made into powder using guidelines mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The analgesic activity of the test drugs was evaluated against acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and radiant heat-induced pain in albino rats, and antipyretic activity was evaluated against Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia using Charles Foster rats. Results: In acetic acid induced writhing in mice, the test drugs MRP (1.3mg/kg) exhibit insignificant reduction in writhing reflex while MLP (1.3mg/kg) did not show any significant effect in comparison to the control group. MRP showed mild-to-moderate insignificant increase in latency of withdrawal response at 60 (26.74*) and 120 min (27.25*), while MLP did not show central analgesic effect in radiant heat model in rats. MRP showed a significant reduction in rectal temperature after 3 and 6 h, while MLP-treated group showed significant reduction after 6 h. Conclusion: MRP has mild-to-moderate peripheral and central analgesic effects, while MLP has not shown significant analgesic effects in both the experimental models. MRP has more pronounced antipyretic effect compared to MLP.
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Evaluation of glucose utilization capacity of bioactivity-guided fractions of Barleria prionitis Linn and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit in isolated rat hemidiaphragm p. 145
Azmath Unnisa Begum, Sama Venkatesh, Jaya Prakash, Ravi Alvala
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_198_15  
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to absolute or relative circulating insulin levels. Plants represent a major potential source of drugs for treating diabetes. The study of plants having antidiabetic activity may give a new approach in the treatment of DM. Aim: This study was aimed to investigate the glucose utilization capacity of bioactivity-guided fractions of Barleria prionitis and Hyptis suaveolens. Materials and Methods: The dried coarse powdered plant material was extracted in aqueous ethanol by cold maceration; further, ethanolic extracts were fractionated using solvents of varying polarity and were investigated in isolated rat hemidiaphragm using 0.1* and 0.2* concentrations of plant extracts. Results: The tested fractions of both plants showed significant and dose-dependent increased glucose uptake capacity and was found to be maximum with petroleum ether and aqueous ethanolic extracts of both plants; 0.2* concentration of both plant extracts is superior in activity when compared to 0.1* of the test extracts. H. suaveolens has produced more glucose utilization capacity when compared to B. prionitis. Conclusion: The activity of H. suaveolens is comparable to standard insulin (P < 0.01). Both the plant materials have some extra pancreatic mechanism like glucose uptake by peripheral tissue.
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