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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2018
Volume 39 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 197-256

Online since Friday, July 5, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

Pharmacovigilance: An ayurvedic viewpoint p. 197
Mandip Goyal
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_82_19  PMID:31367140
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - SURVEY STUDY Top

Diet and lifestyle-related factors associated with Apathyanimittaja Prameha (type 2 diabetes): A cross-sectional survey study p. 199
Akhilesh Shukla, AS Baghel, Mahesh Vyas
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_108_16  PMID:31367141
Background: Lifestyle disorders are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Type 2 diabetes is one such disease with high incidence in low- and middle-income countries such as India. Changed lifestyle, lack of exercise, increased consumption of fatty, fast-food items, improper dietary habits and sedentary life are the main contributory factors for this, which are showing upward trend in India. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to identify the lifestyle factors, physical activities and psychological factors associated with type 2 diabetes among the patient aged between 20-60 years. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted on selected 150 patients of type 2 diabetes within 1 year of diagnosis. A survey questionnaire was used to collect the data for fulfilling the aims and objectives of the study. Results and Observations: 150 patients of type 2 diabetes were observed on various dietary factors, physical activities and life style factors. Conclusion: On the basis of survey psychological factor association with type 2 diabetes and dietary factors, physical activities and psychological factors observed in survey study. The obtained data exposed that intake of heavy, high fatty food, physical inactivity, day sleep and psychological distress as the main lifestyle factors associated with type 2 diabetes.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH Top

Management of Padadari (cracked feet) with Rakta Snuhi (Euphorbia caducifolia Haines.) based formulation: An open-labeled clinical study p. 208
Shashi Gupta, Rabinarayan Acharya
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_57_18  PMID:31367142
Introduction: Ayurveda considers, Padadari (cracked feet) as disease condition, under Kshudra Kushtha (minor diseases of skin). Cracked feet also known as heel fissures is a common foot problem characterized by yellowish color of the skin on the heel of the foot, hard skin growth, hardening and cracks in the feet associated with pain, bleeding or itching. Vaidya Manorama, Ayurvedic compendia, recommended Snuhi oil as a remedy for Padadari. An open-labeled clinical trial has been conducted to evaluate the effect of Rakta Snuhi-based formulation in Padadari. Materials and Methods: Snuhi oil was prepared by mixing Saindhava Lavana (Rock salt) 24 g; 300 ml latex of Rakta Snuhi (Euphorbia caducifolia); 4.8 l. of water, Sarshapa Taila (mustard oil) 1.2 l. and further heating of oil, following classical guidelines of Sneha Kalpana. For better acceptability, the medicated oil was then gradually mixed with “Aerosil,” a thickener, for converting the mixture into gel form. Twenty-six patients, diagnosed with Padadari, were treated by applying 3 g (or as per requirement) of Rakta Snuhi Ksheera gel twice daily for 21 consecutive days. Results: Response to the treatment was recorded on a weekly basis and therapeutic effect was evaluated through symptomatic relief. Conclusion: The study yielded statistically highly significant results in symptoms such as cracks associated with pain (P < 0.001), Rukshata (dryness) (P < 0.001) and Kandu (itching) (P < 0.001).
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Efficacy of Apamarga Kshara application and Sclerotherapy in the management of Arsha (1st and 2nd degree piles) – An open-labeled, randomized, controlled clinical trial p. 213
Bijendra Shah, Tukaram Sambhaji Dudhamal
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_147_18  PMID:31367143
Background: Anorectal disorders are progressively increasing in the society. Out of many of the causes, some important are sedentary lifestyle, irregular and inappropriate diet, prolonged sitting or standing, and certain psychological disturbances. The prime cause of anorectal disorders is the instability of Jatharagni (digestive system), which further leads to constipation. Aim and Objective: To compare the efficacy of Apamarga Kshara application (AKA) and sclerotherapy (SCL) in the management of Arsha (1st and 2nd degree piles). Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 patients of Arsha (1st and 2nd degree piles) were selected and randomly allocated into two groups. In group AKA (n = 25), Apamarga Tikshna Kshara (alkaline of Achyranthes aspera linn.) application was done and in group SCL (n = 25), SCL was done in 1st and 2nd degree piles. The study was open prospective interventional clinical trial. Patients were assessed for relief in signs and symptoms at weekly interval for a month and another 1 month as follow-up period. Results: Patients of group SCL took more time than the patients of group AKA to get reduction in size of pile mass. In group SCL, maximum relief in bleeding as well as discharge per rectum was reported. AKA provided better results in ceasing the bleeding per rectum as well as reducing prolapse piles, than SCL. Conclusion: The study concluded that AKA is a effective procedure of choice for the management of 1st and 2nd degree internal piles as compared to SCL.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY Top

Natural stains Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) and Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) – A substitute to eosin p. 220
Archana Sudhakaran, Kaveri Hallikeri, Biji Babu
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_232_17  PMID:31367144
Background: Stained slides are of the utmost source of information in pathology. The routine stains utilize synthetic dyes which pose various health hazards which necessitate the importance of natural extracts as a histological stain. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of ginger and turmeric extracts as histological dyes in tissues keeping eosin as standard. Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the staining potential, intensity, specificity, and shelf life of ginger and termuric extract dyes. Materials and Methods: Extracts of fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Curcuma longa L. were obtained by dissolving them in alcohol, which was used to stain sections of 25 cases. Observer 1 compared the staining intensity, while observers 2 and 3 assessed preset parameters at regular intervals and subjected to Kappa statistics and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Z. officinale and C. longa solutions had pH 4–5 and temperature 24°C–27°C. Z. officinale showed better staining intensity and specificity to the cytoplasm and basic components of connective tissue as compared to C. longa. Crispness (P = 0.01) and background staining (P = 0.05) showed a significant difference. Shelf life of Z. officinale was better than C. longa. Conclusion: Z. officinale gave a better staining than C. longa and was found to be closest to eosin and is easily available, cost-effective and biodegradable.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY Top

Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of Plantago ovata Forssk. leaves and seeds against periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study p. 226
P Ravi Tejeshwar Reddy, KV Vandana, Shobha Prakash
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_176_16  PMID:31367145
Background: Plantago commonly called as Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forssk.) is a perennial herb that belongs to the family Plantaginaceae. A range of biological activities has been found from plant extracts, including wound healing activity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, weak antibiotic, immunomodulating and anti-ulcerogenic activity. Periodontal disease is a complex condition as a result of interaction between microorganisms and host inflammatory mediators. Hence, the extract of Isabgol is tested for its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against periodontal disease. Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the antibacterial property of Isabgol leaves and seeds against periodontal pathogens, namely Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum and anti-inflammatory property against matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, aqueous extract of Isabgol is tested for its antibacterial property against the stock cultures of specified periodontal pathogens using the tube dilution method and anti-inflammatory property against MMP-2 and MMP-9 using zymogen gel electrography. Results: Minimum concentration at which the sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and F. nucleatum for the extract observed was 50 μl/ml, 0.8 μl/ml, 0.4 μl/ml and 12.5 μl/ml, respectively, concentrations below these showed no effect on the microorganisms. Zymogen electrographic test for anti-inflammatory activity showed percentage inhibition of 30% and 40% against MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively. Conclusion: Isabgol is effective against the periodontal pathogens and inflammatory mediators which are responsible for periodontal disease.
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Triethylene glycol-like effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) root extract devoid of withanolides in stressed mice p. 230
Amitabha Dey, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee, Vikas Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_219_16  PMID:31367146
Background: The objective of the study is to compare stress resistance-promoting effect of triethylene glycol (TEG) and root extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) i.e. withanolide-free root extract of Withania somnifera (WFWS). Materials and Methods: Mice groups treated orally with 10 mg/kg TEG or WFWS (3.3, 10, 33.3, or 100 mg/kg) for 12 consecutive days were subjected to foot shock stress-triggered hyperthermia test on the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th day and to marble-burying test on the following 2 days. Effects of treatment on stress-triggered alteration in body weight, core temperature, blood glucose, insulin and cortisol level were quantified and statistically analyzed. Results: WFWS doses up to 10 mg/kg/day were as effective as TEG in affording protection against stress-triggered alteration in body weight, core temperature and marble-burying behavior. Protection against stress-triggered alteration in blood glucose and insulin level, as well as antidepressants or anxiolytic-like activities in the behavioral test, were observed in the higher two WFWS doses (33.3 and 100 mg/kg) treated groups only. Conclusion: Ashwagandha metabolites other than withanolides contribute to its stress resistance increasing effects. The observations suggest that modulation of physiological functions of gut microbiota may be involved in the mode of action of Withania somnifera root extracts.
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In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Ficus racemosa L. bark using albumin denaturation method p. 239
Sharmila Dharmadeva, Lahiru Sandaruwan Galgamuwa, C Prasadinie, Nishantha Kumarasinghe
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_27_18  PMID:31367147
Introduction: In Ayurveda, many natural plant compounds are used to inhibit inflammatory pathways for centuries with less side effects. Different parts of Ficus racemosa L. (Udumber) plant are used in Ayurveda for many diseases. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate pharmacological activities of F. racemosa. Objective: The objective of the study was to in vitro analyze anti-inflammatory property of F. racemosa bark using albumin denaturation activity. Methodology: F. racemosa bark extraction was performed using cold water and hot water. The concentration gradient of extracts was prepared using egg albumin and phosphate-buffered saline. The extract was incubated in a water bath at 37°C for 15 min and was heated at 70°C for 5 min. One nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and one steroid were used as reference drugs. The percentage inhibition of protein denaturation was calculated. Results: The inhibition rate of egg albumin denaturation for water extraction increased gradually with concentration. Significantly higher inhibition was showed in hot water extracts than cold water extracts at the concentration of 0.01 μg/ml and 0.1 μg/ml. In addition, the inhibition rate of water extraction was significantly higher than the reference drugs (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Anti-inflammatory activity increases with the concentration of F. racemosa bark. Furthermore, the action of this plant is significantly higher than the reference drugs.
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Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Varanadi Kashayam (decoction) in THP-1-derived macrophages Highly accessed article p. 243
JU Chinchu, Mohind C Mohan, S J Rahitha Devi, B Prakash Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_53_18  PMID:31367148
Background: Varanadi Kashayam is an Ayurvedic polyherbal decoction containing 16 ingredients, for which the mechanisms of action involved in controlling chronic inflammatory conditions have not been evaluated. The inhibition of release of proinflammatory cytokines by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes/macrophages is an ideal in vitro model for identifying anti-inflammatory molecules. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of Varanadi Kashayam in THP-1-derived macrophages. Materials and Methods: The efficacy of Varanadi Kashayam on monocyte cell differentiation was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression of differentiation markers MMP-9, CD36, CD11b and CD14. Further Varanadi Kashayam treated THP-1 macrophages were induced with LPS and the production of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) were measured and corresponding genes expressions were quantified. Results: The results indicate that Varanadi Kashayam reduced the differentiation of THP-1 monocytes to macrophages and downregulated the expression of cell surface markers. Furthermore, it could decrease the release of proinflammatory cytokines from LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages and downregulated the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β genes. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest a possible mechanism of action of the herbal decoction in inflammatory processes and opens up the possibilities of identifying bioactive lead molecules with anti-inflammatory potentials.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

A clinical study on the effect of Triphaladi Kala Basti with Arjuna Punarnavadi Ghanavati in the management of essential hypertension p. 250
Ujwala Samadhan Hivale, Santosh Kumar Bhatted, Meera K Bhojani, Nirmal Bhusal
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_184_17  PMID:31367149
Introduction: Hypertension, one of the grave conditions, accounts for 6% of deaths worldwide. In 2010 increased blood pressure was the cause of an estimated 9.4 million deaths. According to Ayurveda, systemic arterial hypertension can be considered as Tridoshaja condition with predominance of Vata and Pitta along with invovment of Rasa, Rakta and Meda. Basti Karma a medicated enema procedure is the best treatment for vitiated Vata Dosha and it regulates the movement of Vata Dosha. Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate effect of Triphaladi Kala Basti procedure given along with Arjuna Punarnavadi Ghanavati in the management of essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who were diagnosed cases of essential hypertension as per the 7th JNC and World Health Organization criteria for diagnosis of hypertension were treated with Triphaladi Basti followed by oral administration of Arjuna Punarnavadi Ghanavati. Results: Administration of Basti and Arjuna Punarnavadi Ghanavati were effective in reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure level which was highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Triphaladi Kala Basti procedure along with oral administration of Arjuna Punarnavadi Ghanavati is moderatly effective in management of systemic arterial hypertension.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Kaphaja, Kapha-Pittaja Prakriti, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T allele and type 2 diabetes p. 256
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_44_19  PMID:31367150
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