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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2015
Volume 36 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 115-229

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EDITORIALS  

Need of publication……? p. 115
Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175540  
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How far the philosophical aspects in Ayurvedic academia are relevant today? p. 116
Mahesh Vyas
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175544  
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INVITED ARTICLE Top

Researches on mercurial preparations: The prime requirement for their acceptance in medical world p. 118
J Arunachalam
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175541  
Ayurvedic and Siddha medicinal preparations containing mercury have been used over centuries in India. The recent WHO guidelines on the use of mercurials as well as actions by other international organizations into eliminating mercury in all forms have put the people practicing Rasa Shastra in a quandary. Active research in the mechanism of curative actions of mercurials is very much essential, to have widespread acceptance of the ancient practice. The toxicity of a substance depends on its bio-availability; the chemical form in which it is present and the biochemical reactions it participates. Mercury is usually administered as mercuric sulfide (Rasasindura or Linga Chendooram) which has a KSP value of 10–54. Despite this extreme insolubility, how mercury becomes bio-available under enzymatic conditions needs to be studied. Its bioaccumulation in critical organs and excretory pathways are to be ascertained. Research is also needed to establish whether Rasasindura or equivalent medicines induce the (excess) synthesis of sulfur containing biomolecules in human systems, which act as cell protectors against free radical-induced cell damage. The antioxidants themselves could be the curative agents; mercury being just a catalyst. It may also be possible that the exposure to mercury, even in very small amounts, could lead to the synthesis of specific metallothioneins in the human system, helping to detoxify the mercury exposure. The author is of the opinion that Ayurvedic practitioners/researchers should carry out long-term follow-up studies on human patients. The superiority of mercury based Ayurvedic preparations, as against modern allopathic medicines, in providing rapid and long lasting cure for specific diseases needs to document and published. In the absence of such supportive research literature, the use of mercury will become untenable, even for medicinal purposes.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

A review on Purisha Pariksha in Ayurveda p. 125
Rajesh Uikey, Anukul Chandra Kar
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175536  
Stool examination is an important laboratory investigative tool in medicine, which is used to understand the health and disease condition of a person. It is also included in Ashtasthana Pariksha. The factors which are described under Ashtasthana Pariksha indicate that these are the body parts or metabolic products, where there will be changes when a person suffers from diseases. Observing these changes, the diagnosis can be made, or these can help as tools in diagnosing a disease. The changes pertaining to Purisha (stool) have been described under various disease conditions in Brihattrayi but are scattered. Hence, a study is aimed to compile all such scattered data related to changes in stool in various disease conditions by following the scheme of Sushruta's Shadvidha Pariksha (6-fold examination). This will provide the first-hand information about the changes in stool and will act as a guide to diagnose the disease. Jala Nimajjana Purisha Pariksha is also another tool through which the status of Agni and the presence of Ama can be detected.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE - SURVEY STUDY Top

Pharmacovigilance study of Ayurvedic medicine in Ayurvedic Teaching Hospital: A prospective survey study p. 130
Manjunath N Ajanal, Shradda U Nayak, Avinash P Kadam, BS Prasad
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175539  
Introduction: Though Ayurveda is practiced in the Indian subcontinent since centuries, there is a paucity of systematic documentation related to the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and other issues regarding the safety of Ayurveda medicines. Aim: To monitor and analyze the pattern and frequency of ADR to Ayurvedic medicines in an Ayurvedic hospital setup. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, ADR monitoring was done in KLE Ayurveda Secondary Care Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India by spontaneous and intensive monitoring technique for a span of 1-year (June 2010 to May 2011). Data pertaining to patient demography, drug and reaction characteristics, organ system involved and reaction outcomes were collected and evaluated. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results: In a span of one year, 84 adverse drug events were reported out of which 52 confirmed as ADR. The overall incidence of ADR in the patient population was 1.14%, out of which 23 (44.23%) were related to Panchakarma (detoxification process), 13 (25.00%) related to the herbal formulations and 06 (11.53%) were of Rasa Aushadhi (mineral or herbo-mineral formulations). The commonly affected organ systems were gastrointestinal system 24 (46.15%) and skin 15 (28.84%). The majority of the reactions were moderate 30 (57.69%) to mild 20 (38.46%) in severity. Most patients recovered from the incidence. Conclusion: The present work has documented the incidence and characteristic of ADR to Ayurvedic medicine in a typical Ayurveda hospital setup. This will help in developing various strategies for boosting pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda, thereby ensuring safer use of Ayurveda medicines.
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CLINICAL RESEARCH Top

Efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Matra Basti of Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita in Mootraghata (benign prostatic hyperplasia) p. 138
Joyal Kumar K Patel, Tukaram S Dudhamal, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Vyasadeva Mahanta
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175552  
Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a senile disorder affects male of and above 40 years characterized by retention, incomplete voiding, dribbling, hesitancy, and incontinence of urine. This condition is comparable with Mootraghata in Ayurveda. Surgical intervention has been accepted as standard management, but has acute cystitis, acute epididymitis, erectile dysfunction, retrograde ejaculation, etc. as complications. Conservative treatment with modern medicine is also associated with side effects. Hence, to avoid such complications and improve the quality of life in senile age, conservative management with Ayurveda is attempted. Aim: To evaluate clinical efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in Mootraghata. Materials and Methods: Total 30 patients having signs and symptoms of BPH were selected from OPD and IPD of Shalya Tantra and enrolled equally into three groups (n = 10). Patients of Group A were administered with Kanchanara Guggulu (500 mg, 3 times a day orally), Group B were with Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti, while patients of Group C were administered both the drugs for 21 days. International prostate symptom score (IPSS) was used to assess the efficacy. paired and unpaired “t” test, Chi-square test were applied for significance. Results: In IPSS, Group B had shown the better results (84.27%) than the Group A (72.68%) and Group C (82.10%). In all objective parameters, Group C had shown better effect (23.60%) than Group A (15.70%) and Group B (18.24%). Symptomatic relief was better in Group B than Groups A and C. Comparison between three groups on objective parameters was better in Group C than in Group A and B. Conclusion: Kanchanara Guggulu orally and Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti is effective conservative management for symptomatic relief in BPH of senile age.
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Comparative evaluation of turmeric gel with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate gel for treatment of plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial p. 145
Abhishek Kandwal, Ravindra Kumar Mamgain, Pratibha Mamgain
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175537  
Introduction: Ayurveda is regarded as most ancient traditional system of medicine originated in India having its root back in the Vedas. Medicinal herbs have been long employed to improve the oral health by means of frequently used therapeutic procedures Kavala (gargling) and Gandusha (holding of medicated liquids in the mouth). Gingivitis is most common ailment that results in bleeding gums and halitosis. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of turmeric gel as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent compared to chlorhexidine gel. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with plaque-induced gingivitis were divided into two groups, Group A was given turmeric gel and Group B was given chlorhexidine gel for 21 days in vaccupress trays. Plaque and gingival index were taken at baseline, 14 days and 21 days. Subjective and objective criteria were evaluated at 14 and 21 days. Results: On comparison of Group A and Group B, statistically insignificant difference was observed at 14 and 21 days. Reduction in plaque index at 0 and 21 days was 60.81% and 60.21% for turmeric and chlorhexidine group, respectively. Reduction in the gingival index at 0 and 21 days was 71.79% and 71.20% for turmeric and chlorhexidine group, respectively. Conclusion: Both groups reported a comparable reduction in plaque and gingival index. Turmeric gel reported better acceptance due to pleasant odor and no staining of teeth in comparison to chlorhexidine gel that reported a bitter taste and staining of teeth.
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Clinical evaluation of Varnya Gana Lepa in Vyanga (melasma) p. 151
G Pallavi, KL Virupaksha Gupta, M Shreevathsa, Vasudev A Chate, DL Balakrishna
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175543  
Background: Vyanga type of Kshudra Roga, characterised by Niruja (painless), Shyava Varna Mandalas (bluish black patches) occurring especially on the face. The clinical features correlate with melasma, which is an acquired chronic hyperpigmentation disorder, usually seen in women of childbearing age. The drugs which constitute the Varnya Gana Lepa bestow the normal Varna (color) by virtue of their qualities and actions. Aim: To determine the efficacy of Varnya Gana Lepa in the management of Vyanga. Materials and Methods: The study was a single armed clinical trial in which total 40 patients of Vyanga belonging to the age group of 16–60 years were enrolled. Paste for external application was prepared by mixing the fine powders of 10 drugs (in equal quantity) of Varnya Gana with lukewarm water and advised to apply Lepa twice daily for 15 days on affected part. The different parameters such as skin color, lesion color, texture-dryness/oiliness, luster, number and size of the lesions, darkness, area and homogeneity of lesion, itching, burning sensation, and melasma area severity index (MASI) score were assessed. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in MASI scores, but in overall assessment, 64.5% patients had mild improvement. Clinical improvement was more evident in darkness parameter when compared to other parameters. Conclusion: The study concludes that Varnya Gana Lepa is a safe and effective formulation in the management of Vyanga (melasma).
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A comparative clinical study of Jethimala (Taverniera nummularia Baker.) and Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) in the management of Amlapitta p. 157
Shashikant M Prajapati, Bhupesh R Patel
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175551  
Introduction: Amlapitta is very common disease in society. In present era hectic lifestyle, irregular and faulty dietary habits, etc. are the causative factors of Amlapitta. Most of the symptoms of hyper acidity are enumerated in the conditions of Amlapitta delineated in Ayurvedic classics. The local people and Vaidyas of Saurashtra and Kutchh region have been frequently using Jethimala as Yashtimadhu, botanically known as Taverniera nummularia Baker. Aim: To evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of Jethimala (T. nummularia) and Yasthimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) in Amlapitta. Materials and Methods: In this present clinical study, total 40 patients of Amlapitta were registered and randomly divided into two groups. In group A, Yashtimadhu Moola Choorna (G. glabra root powder) and in group B Jethimala Moola Choorna (T. nummularia root powder) was given for 2 weeks with water. A clinical research proforma was specially designed on the basis of classically reported signs and symptoms of Amlapitta for assessing the efficacy of the study drugs. Results: Yashtimadhu and Jethimala significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms of Amlapitta like, Tikta-Amlodgara (eryctations with bitter or sour taste) 67.64% in group A and 60% in group B, Hrit-Kanthadaha (burning sensation in the chest and throat) 69% in group A and 66.06% in group B and Utklesha (nausea) 65.35% in group A and 61.70% in group B. Conclusion: Statistically significant improvement was observed in all the symptoms in both the groups. While in comparison Jethimala showed better effect than Yashtimadhu (G. glabra) in Aruchi. It is concluded that Jethimala can be used as a substitute for Yashtimadhu.
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Clinical efficacy of Apamarga Kshara Yoga in the management of Shvitra (vitiligo) p. 163
Hasmukh R Jadav, R Galib, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175553  
Introduction: Vitiligo is a progressive, idiopathic, pigmentation disorder of the skin, characterized by hypopigmented patches. This condition is compared with Shvitra in Ayurveda. Many Ayurvedic drugs are beneficial in such cases and Apamarga Kshara Yoga is one among them. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Apamarga Kshara Yoga in Lepa and ointment forms in the management of Shvitra. Materials and Methods: Total 50 patients of Shvitra were randomly grouped into two. Patients registered in Group A (n = 25) were treated with Apamarga Kshara Yoga Lepa and Group B (n = 25) with Apamarga Kshara Yoga ointment for 2 months. Rasayana Churna (3g) along with Honey and Ghee was given twice daily internally in the both groups. Results: Significant improvement was found in the symptoms of Shvitra with treatment in both the groups. The difference in between the groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Both forms of Apamraga Kshara Yoga are effective in cases of Shvitra and can be good alternatives for contemporary medicines.
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Clinical evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis as osteogenic agent in maxillofacial fracture: A pilot study p. 169
Hemal R Brahmkshatriya, Kruti A Shah, GB Ananthkumar, Mansi H Brahmkshatriya
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175542  
Introduction: Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is an indigenous medicinal plant, grown in India, which helps to increase healing process of fractured bone. Fracture of maxillofacial skeletal takes reasonably long time to heal. Many attempts have been made till today to reduce the healing period of 6–8 weeks, by means of improved surgical technology or by inhibiting the physiological mechanism of bone healing. Aim: To evaluate the effect of C. quadrangularis in healing process of maxillofacial fracture. Materials and Methods: All the patients were treated by open reduction internal fixation method and in postoperative management, antibiotics, and analgesics. Patients were divided into two groups. In Group 1, one capsule of C. quadrangularis (500 mg) thrice a day for 6 weeks was administered (n = 5), and in Group 2 (control group), no supplementary medication was administered (n = 4). Pain, swelling, fragment mobility, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus were evaluated pre- and post-operatively on day-1, -21, and -45. Results: Pain, swelling, and fragment mobility were low in Group 1 compared to Group 2. Serum calcium and serum phosphorus were also high, and healing of bone was clearly seen in Group 1 on day 21 as compared to control group. Conclusion: C. quadrangularis helps in reducing pain, swelling, and fracture mobility and accelerate the healing of fracture jaw bones.
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CASE STUDY Top

Adverse reaction of Parasika Yavani (Hyoscyamus niger Linn): Two case study reports p. 174
K Aparna, Abhishek J Joshi, Mahesh Vyas
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175550  
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an unpleasant reaction related to the use of medicine at its therapeutic dose. Ayurveda is well aware of such adverse reactions. Parasika Yavani (Hyoscyamus niger Linn.) is an Ayurvedic drug effectively used in many psychological disorders, if not used judiciously it causes adverse reactions. In present study two cases of ADR on the usage of Parasika Yavani are reported. Churna in capsule form given in different dosage forms (500 mg once a day, 250 mg twice a day, 250 mg once a day) in Chittodwega (generalised anxiety disorder). 500mg capsule was given to many patients in the study, but no adverse reactions were noticed except in above given two cases. So, in these two cases, the dose was tapered down to 250 mg twice a day, and then to 250 mg once a day to avert the adverse reactions and to fix the therapeutic dose in such individuals (250 mg once a day). On analysis, these two individuals were found to be of Pitta Prakriti. Parasika Yavani is found to increase Pitta and triggers the establishment of ADRs. So, while administering therapeutic dosage, a physician should be vigilant. In the current study, it is observed that 500 mg of Parasika Yavani powder in Pitta Prakriti individuals triggered ADRs while 250 mg once a day was safe. It was also observed that Kapha and Vata Prakriti, patients did not develop any adverse reactions.
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Ayurvedic management of papilledema p. 177
Manjusha Rajagopala, G Gopinathan
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175545  
The term Shotha ordinarily means a swelling which may be because of inflammatory process in any part of the body or may be general, due to causes other than inflammatory. A diagnosed case of papilledema (Kapha-Pittaja Drishti Nadi Shotha) was treated on the lines of Shotha Chikitsa. The patient was given Dashamoola and Punarnavashtaka Kwatha internally and locally Nasya and Takradhara for 3 months. At the end of 3 months, papilledema completely regressed. Follow-up of the patient for more than 3 years, no recurrence has been reported.
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PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATIONS Top

Standard manufacturing procedure for Laghu Malini Vasanta Rasa in context of Bhavana (levigation) p. 180
Manisha B Walunj, Biswajyoti Patgiri, Vinay J Shukla, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175535  
Introduction: Laghu Malini Vasanta (LMV) Rasa is a well-known Vasanta Kalpa (formulation). As per reference of Yoga Ratnakara, Rasaka and Maricha are chief ingredients in 2:1 proportion. Bhavana (levigation) is said to be given first with Navaneeta (freshly prepared cow's butter) and then with Nimbu Swarasa (lemon juice) until Ghrita Vimukta stage is reached. Quantity of Bhavana Dravya (levigating media) and duration of levigation are not mentioned. Aims: To develop standard manufacturing procedure of LMV Rasa. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in two stages - preparation of Yashada Bhasma and preparation of LMV Rasa and its tablet. A pilot study was carried out to fix quantity of cow's butter as levigation media. Based on results of the pilot study, LMV Rasa was prepared in two groups, that is, LMV 50 (LMV Rasa - prepared with weight of freshly prepared butter in 50% quantity of total ingredients) and LMV 75 (LMV Rasa prepared with weight of freshly prepared butter in 75% quantity of total ingredients). Complete drying of levigated mass and minimal spreading of fatty portion on filter paper was considered as the end point of levigation. Tablets of both samples were prepared by adding Pippali and honey in it and analyzed for their quality control parameters. Results: Twenty-eight hours duration of repeated levigation was required in LMV 50 which was prolonged up to 48 h in batch carried out in rainy season. In LMV 75, comparatively maximum duration of 54 h was required for levigation which was prolonged in the rainy season to 88 h. In both groups, lemon juice required for repeated levigation was 10 times of quantity of butter added initially. Conclusion: From pharmaceutical point of view, preparation of LMV Rasa tablets with quantity of butter in 50% of total ingredients is more convenient.
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High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts p. 188
Prakash R Itankar, Dattatray B Sawant, Mohd. Tauqeer, Sonal S Charde
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175546  
Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs.
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PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES Top

Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interaction of Panchagavya Ghrita with phenytoin and carbamazepine in maximal electroshock induced seizures in rats p. 196
Rupa Joshi, KH Reeta, Surinder Kumar Sharma, Manjari Tripathi, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175538  
Introduction: Traditionally, Panchagavya Ghrita (PG) has been used for the management of epilepsy, anxiety, fever and jaundice. It consists of five components of cow products namely, cow milk, clarified butter from cow milk, cow urine, curd from cow milk, and cow dung juice. Aim: To evaluate the effect of PG in maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures model and its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interaction with phenytoin (PHT) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were administered PG 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg orally for 7 days and seizures were induced by MES. For interaction studies, PG (4000 mg/kg) was administered along with a sub-therapeutic dose of PHT (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and CBZ (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Behavioral parameters were assessed. Oxidative stress markers and serum levels of PHT and CBZ were estimated. Results: Tonic hind limb extension, cognitive impairment, and oxidative stress produced by MES were reversed by PG (4000 mg/kg). Co-administration of PG (4000 mg/kg) with a sub-therapeutic dose of PHT and CBZ potentiated antiepileptic effect and ameliorated cognitive impairment as well as oxidative stress. Although, there was a slight increase in serum levels of PHT and CBZ on co-administration with PG, it was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Co-administration of PG with low doses of PHT and CBZ caused complete seizure protection. This suggests the potential of PG as an adjunct in epilepsy with improved efficacy and tolerability.
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Antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic juice: An in vitro study p. 203
Seema Yadav, Niyati A Trivedi, Jagat D Bhatt
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175548  
Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance has been a global concern. Currently, interest has been focused on exploring antimicrobial properties of plants and herbs. One such botanical is Allium sativum (garlic). Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of fresh juice of garlic. Materials and Methods: Varying concentrations of fresh garlic juice (FGJ) were tested for their antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic organisms isolated at SSG Hospital, Vadodara, using well diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of FGJ were tested using broth dilution method. Sensitivity pattern of the conventional antimicrobials against common pathogenic bacteria was tested using disc diffusion method. Results: FGJ produced dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition at a concentration of 10% and higher. MIC of FGJ against the pathogens ranged from 4% to 16% v/v whereas MLC value ranged from 4% to 32% v/v with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus spp. showed highest sensitivity. Conclusion: FGJ has definite antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic organisms isolated at SSG Hospital, Vadodara. Further studies are needed to find out the efficacy, safety, and kinetic data of its active ingredients.
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Hematinic effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. on phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in rats p. 208
Sanjay P Chauhan, Navin R Sheth, Bhanubhai N Suhagia
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175549  
Introduction: The fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. are known as prickly pear and folkloric use as hematinic, anti-inflammatory and antiasthmatic action. Previously, the fruit juice of prickly pear was evaluated in reversed anemia induced by HgCl2in a dose dependant manner and present study revealed about its effect in acute hemolytic anemia. Aim: To evaluate the hematinic activity of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. Materials and Methods: The hematinic activity of an orally administered fruit juice was studied on phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced anemic rats. The hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb) content, red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), and reticulocyte count were analyzed as indices of anemia. Results: PHZ altered the hematological parameters by hemolysis characterized by a decrease in Hb content, total RBC counts and PCV (P < 0.001) on day 3. The Hb content (g%) was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at day 7 in 10 and 15 ml/kg fruit juice treated rats, which was a good improvement compared to the standard. Conclusion: The speedy and progressive recovery of anemic rats responding to treatment of the O. elatior Mill. fruits may be due to increased erythropoiesis and/or antioxidant property of betacyanin.
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Antihypertensive peptides from curd p. 214
Melani Chathurika Dabarera, Lohini V Athiththan, Rasika P Perera
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175534  
Introduction: Curd (Dadhi) peptides reduce hypertension by inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and serum cholesterol. Peptides vary with bacterial species and milk type used during fermentation. Aim: To isolate and assay the antihypertensive peptides, before and after digestion, in two commercially available curd brands in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: Whey (Dadhi Mastu) separated by high-speed centrifugation was isolated using reverse-phase-high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Eluted fractions were analyzed for ACE inhibitory activity using modified Cushman and Cheung method. Curd samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion with pepsin, trypsin, and carboxypeptidase-A at their optimum pH and temperature. Peptides isolated using reverse-phase-HPLC was assayed for ACE inhibitory activity. Results: Whey peptides of both brands gave similar patterns (seven major and five minor peaks) in HPLC elution profile. Smaller peptides concentration was higher in brand 1 and penta-octapeptides in brand 2. Pentapeptide had the highest ACE inhibitory activity (brand 2–90% and brand 1–73%). After digestion, di and tri peptides with similar inhibitory patterns were obtained in both which were higher than before digestion. Thirteen fractions were obtained, where nine fractions showed more than 70% inhibition in both brands with 96% ACE inhibition for a di-peptide. Conclusion: Curd has ACE inhibitory peptides and activity increases after digestion.
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Experimental evaluation of antipyretic and analgesic activities of Amalakyadi Gana: An Ayurvedic formulation p. 220
Manoj J Timbadiya, K Nishteswar, Rabinarayan Acharya, Mukesh B Nariya
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175554  
Introduction: In Ayurvedic classics, the symptom fever is considered as a separate disease called Jwara. Acharya Sushruta has mentioned Amalakyadi Gana for treatment of all types of Jwara, which contains four drugs namely Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.), Pippali (Piper longum L.), and Chitraka (Plumbago zeylenica L.). Aims: To evaluate the antipyretic and analgesic activity of Amalakyadi Gana in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Decoction and alcohol soluble extract of Amalakyadi Gana were used in the present study. Antipyretic activity of dosage forms were carried out against yeast-induced pyrexia in Wistar albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated using radiant heat model and formalin induced paw licking in Wistar albino rats. Results: In yeast-induced pyrexia model, both dosage forms of test drug produced marked decrease in rectal temperature after 3 h, 6 h, and 9 h among which extract produced statistically significant decrease after 6 h compared to control group. In the tail flick method, both forms of test drug showed insignificant increase in tail flick response after 180 and 240 min compared to control group and in formalin induced paw liking model decoction form of test drug significantly increased the latency of onset of paw licking and decreased the paw licking in early phase while alcoholic extract produced insignificant effect compared to control group. Conclusion: Decoction and alcoholic extract of Amalakyadi Gana has moderate antipyretic activity in rats, which may be due to inhibition of the synthesis and/or release of local PGE2. Further, Amalakyadi Gana has mild analgesic effect through central and peripheral mechanism. The result of the present study provide further scope for development of new palatable dosage form and tested clinically for better efficacy.
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X-Ray Diffraction of different samples of Swarna Makshika Bhasma p. 225
Ramesh Kumar Gupta, Vijay Lakshmi, Chandra Bhushan Jha
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.175547  
Introduction: Shodhana and Marana are a series of complex procedures that identify the undesirable effects of heavy metals/minerals and convert them into absorbable and assimilable forms. Study on the analytical levels is essential to evaluate the structural and chemical changes that take place during and after following such procedures as described in major classical texts to understand the mystery behind these processes. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) helps to identify and characterize minerals/metals and fix up the particular characteristics pattern of prepared Bhasma. Aim: To evaluate the chemical changes in Swarna Makshika Bhasma prepared by using different media and methods. Materials and Methods: In this study, raw Swarna Makshika, purified Swarna Makshika and four types of Swarna Makshika Bhasma prepared by using different media and methods were analyzed by XRD study. Results: XRD study of different samples revealed strongest peaks of iron oxide in Bhasma. Other phases of Cu2O, FeS2, Cu2S, FeSO4, etc., were also identified in many of the samples. Conclusion: XRD study revealed that Swarna Makshika Bhasma prepared by Kupipakwa method is better, convenient, and can save time.
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