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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2015
Volume 36 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 359-439

Online since Friday, September 16, 2016

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Headway in Ayurveda: Miles to go Highly accessed article p. 359
Mahesh Vyas
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Exploring issues in contemporary Ayurvedic education p. 361
Ram Harsh Singh
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Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies p. 364
Ashutosh Chauhan, Deepak Kumar Semwal, Satyendra Prasad Mishra, Ruchi Badoni Semwal
Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda.
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Evaluation of package inserts of Ayurveda drug formulations from Mumbai city p. 370
Sudatta Shirolkar, Raakhi K Tripathi, Anirudha V Potey
Introduction: Package insert (PI) is a vital document accompanying a prescribed medication to provide information to the prescriber and end-user at a glance. Studies regarding PIs of Ayurvedic medicines in accordance with standard guidelines are lacking. Aim: Present study was undertaken to evaluate PI of Ayurveda drugs. Materials and Methods: PIs of Ayurveda drugs were obtained from five randomly selected Ayurveda medical shops located in three main zones of Mumbai. From each medical shop, a range of 15–20 PI was planned to be collected for different formulations. It was decided to collect a minimum fifty PIs/group for equitable distribution of various formulations in period of January–June2013. Checklist was prepared, and content validity was achieved. Final validated checklist contained a total of 13 items, and the presence or absence of information pertaining to these items on the PI was evaluated. Any other additional information present on PI was also noted. Each item was analyzed and expressed as percentages. Results: The information on 258 PIs included: Name of ingredients (67%), quantity of ingredients (47.27%), route of administration (86.8%), dosage form (86.8%), indications (18%), dose (18%), contraindications (18%), side effects (9%), shelf life (5.81%), storage conditions (11%), and manufacturers name with contact details (34%). Conclusion: PIs accompanying Ayurveda medicinal products in India are deficient in information required to be furnished by them.
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Well-being at workplace through mindfulness: Influence of Yoga practice on positive affect and aggression p. 375
Umesh Dwivedi, Sony Kumari, KB Akhilesh, HR Nagendra
Introduction: Mindfulness is about being aware of internal and external stimuli by witnessing the act in a nonjudgmental manner. Earlier researches suggest that positive affectivity (PA) is negatively related to negative affectivity, aggression, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Aim: The present study examined the effect of mindfulness developed through Yoga practices on aggression and PA among working professionals involved in CWB. Materials and Methods: A pre-test, post-test randomized controlled design was used with a study sample of Yoga group (n = 80) and control group (n = 80) for a duration of 10 weeks. Yoga module that included Asanas, Pranayama, meditation, and Yogic theories were taught to the Yoga group. Mild to moderate physical exercises and management theories were taught to the control group. Measurements of aggression and PA scores were taken at the baseline and postintervention for assessment. Results: At the baseline, there was no significant difference in the variable scores between both the groups. Postintervention results revealed that Yoga group showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in aggression and significant (P < 0.001) enhancement in PA in comparison to the control group. Conclusions: When compared with the control group at the end of the intervention, the Yoga group scores were significantly lower for aggression and higher for PA.
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Efficacy of irrigation with different antimicrobial agents on periodontal health in patients treated for chronic periodontitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial p. 380
Shahabe Saquib Abullais, Nitin Dani, Hamiduddin , N Priyanka, Nitin Kudyar, Anoop Gore
Introduction: Periodontitis is inflammation of supporting tooth structure. Most individuals get affected by this disease if oral hygiene is not maintained. There are various mechanical and chemical methods for oral hygiene maintenance. In recent past, interest has been diverted toward the herbal/traditional product in oral hygiene maintenance as they are free from untoward effect. Aim: To assess the efficacy of subgingival irrigation with herbal extract (HE) as compared with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) on periodontal health in patients who have been treated for chronic periodontitis, and still have residual pocket of 3–5 mm. Materials and Methods: This was a controlled, single-blind, randomized study for 3 months. Patients were allocated in two groups (n = 15 each): (1) 0.2% CHX (control group); (2) HE consisting of Punica granatum Linn. (pomegranate), Piper nigrum Linn. (black pepper), and detoxified copper sulfate (test group). Solutions were used for the irrigation using pulsated irrigating device, WaterPik. Clinical outcomes evaluated were plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), probing depth at baseline, 15th, 30th, 60th, and 90th day. Microbiologic evaluation was done at baseline and 90th day. Results: Significant reduction in PI was seen in the group of irrigation with HE. While comparing SBI, irrigation with CHX shows a better result. Other parameters such as probing pocket depth and microbiological counting were similar for both groups. Conclusion: Irrigation with HE is a simple, safe, and noninvasive technique with no serious adverse effects. It also reduces the percentage of microorganism in periodontal pocket.
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Therapeutic evaluation of “Ayush Tulsi Jiwan Plus” oil for chronic musculoskeletal pain relief p. 387
Kunal Sharma, Jagannath Sahoo, Dipsundar Sahu, Abichal Chattopadhyay, Sanjay Kumar, Sudhanshu Sekhar Mishra
Background: Chronic pain of musculoskeletal origin is a very common symptom and has major effect on the physical, mental, and economic aspects of the patients. There is always a crave among physicians and patients for effective analgesic, curable preparation that can be locally applied. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of “Ayush Tulsi Jiwan Plus” oil in chronic pain management of musculoskeletal origin. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of chronic musculoskeletal pain of unknown origin of mild to moderate condition were advised to apply “Ayush Tulsi Jiwan Plus” oil locally twice daily for 6 weeks and examined weekly. After completion of the treatment, the efficacy of the therapy was assessed on the basis of the subjective criteria such as perception of pain, tenderness, swelling, and joint mobility. Results: In this study, mean baseline score versus last visit score of pain (2.84 ± 0.68 vs. 1.33 ± 0.76), tenderness (1.64 ± 0.74 vs. 0.36 ± 0.56), and swelling (0.64 ± 0.85 vs. 0.38 ± 0.66) was significantly decreased, and also clinical improvement was seen in the study participants along with no evidence of adverse drug reactions. Conclusion: The analysis of the overall effect of this “Ayush Tulsi Jiwan Plus” oil preparation was found efficacious and topically safe in chronic pain conditions. However, further study will be required with larger sample size and in heterogeneous population to elicit long-term effect of this polyherbal preparation.
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Clinical efficacy of Punarnava Mandura and Dhatri Lauha in the management of Garbhini Pandu (anemia in pregnancy) p. 397
Deepika A Khandelwal, Shilpa B Donga, Laxmipriya Dei
Introduction: India is one of the countries with high prevalence of anemia during pregnancy. Anemia in pregnancy is multifactorial. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common conditions in a pregnant woman. As per ayurvedic classics, this condition occurs due to improper Rasa Dhatu in mother and continuously increasing fetal demands and is considered as Rasa Pradoshajavikara. A large number of Lauha preparations have been used widely for centuries to cure Anemia. Aim: To evaluate efficacy of Punarnava Mandura and Dhatri Lauha on Garbhini Pandu. Materials and Methods: A total 24 pregnant women with symptoms of Garbhini Pandu were randomly divided into two groups (A and B). In Group A (n = 15) Punarnava Mandura, two tablets (each of 500 mg) thrice a day with one cup (100 ml) of buttermilk and in Group B (n = 9) Dhatri Lauha, two tablets (each of 500 mg) thrice a day with luke warm water were administered for 90 days. The assessment was done with subjective parameters such as pallor, general weakness, dyspnea, etc., and objective parameters such as hematological parameters. Results were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test. Results: The results revealed that overall clinical improvement was better in Group A when compared to Group B. Hemoglobin was increased in patients of Group A, which was statistically significant. No adverse drug reaction was observed during the treatment period. Conclusion: Punarnava Mandura is more effective on Garbhini Pandu in comparison to Dhatri Lauha.
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A placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of Kharjurapaka in Mamsakshaya p. 404
Sujata P Dhoke, Rambabu Dwivedi, Mahesh Vyas
Introduction: The world is facing most of the health problems due to nutritional imbalance, and Mamsakshaya (wasting) is one of them. Mamsakshaya explained in Kiyantahshirasiya Adhyaya can be considered as a separate entity, and it can be correlated with Karshya vyadhi. Mamsakshaya occurs due to diminished Prithvi and Jala Mahabhuta in the body and also due to improper diet and environmental factors. Kharjurapaka (KP) is having Prithvi and Jala Mahabhuta dominance and Guru (heavy), Shita (cold), Snigdha (unctuous) Guna (property) which are similar to conjugation of Mamsa Dhatu. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate Brimhana (nourishment) effect of KP on having signs and symptoms of Mamsakshaya patients. Materials and Methods: The study was therapeutic, interventional, randomized placebo controlled clinical trial carried out on 34 patients of Mamsakshaya. Patients were divided into two Groups. In Group A (trial group), KP (20 g) once in a day with normal water was administered for 30 days, and in Group B (control group), placebo tablet (500 mg) of roasted wheat flour for 30 days duration was administered. Effect of therapy was assessed on subjective and objective parameters, anthropometrical parameters such as body mass index (BMI), weight, and chest circumference. Results: It was found that Group A showed significant results in BMI and sign and symptom of Mamsakshaya in comparison to Group B. Conclusion: KP showed better efficacy in comparison with placebo group.
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Ayurvedic management of Pravahika – A case report p. 410
BA Pooja, Santosh Bhatted
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon. The disease is a type of colitis, which is a group of diseases that cause inflammation of the colon, the largest section of the large intestine, either in segments or completely. The main symptom of this active disease is diarrhea mixed with blood. In Ayurveda, it can be compared with a disease Pravahika characterized by Atidrava Mala Pravrutti with Rakta. A 30 year old female patient reported to the out patient Department of Panchakarma, NIA, Jaipur, with the complaints of frequent loose, watery, frothy, and foul-smelling stool stained with mucous and blood. Other associated complaints were reduced appetite, distension and pain in the abdomen, weakness, heat intolerance, reduced sleep, and headache. The patient was diagnosed as IBD consistent with UC. A combination of Nagarmotha(Cyperus rotundus L.) 2 g, Indrayava(Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall.) 1 g, Nagakeshara(Mesua ferrea L.) 1 g, Madhuyashti(Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) 1 g, and Amalaki(Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) 1 g powders three times a day, along with Dadimashtaka Choorna 3 g with Shankha Bhasma 500mg three times a day, Mustarista 2 tsp three times a day after food, and Dhanyapanchaka Kvatha 20ml two times a day before food was administered for 2months. After the 2-month treatment, a significant response in various symptoms such as frequent defecation, abdomen distension, headache, heat intolerance, and reduced sleep was found.
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Management of Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis) with diet and Virechanakarma p. 413
Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Anup B Thakar, Tukaram S Dudhamal, Aditya Nema
Amavata is a disease in which vitiation of Vata Dosha and accumulation of Ama take place in joint(s), and it simulates rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at modern parlance. Shamana (conservative) and Shodhana (biological purification of the body) treatments are advised in Ayurveda whereas anti-inflammatory, analgesics, steroids, and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are required for its management as per modern medicine, which are not free from side effects. A female was suffering from multiple joints pain with swelling, severe morning stiffness, restricted movements, malaise, and Mandagni (poor appetite) for the past 1½ year, which was classified as Amavata/RA (having 7/10 score as per the RA classification criteria, 2010). After Deepana-Pachana and Snehapana, Virechanakarma was done by the administration of Trivrita Avaleha and castor oil. The assessment was made on the basis of relief in signs and symptoms and serological findings of RA factor, C-reactive protein (CRP), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. After Virechanakarma, RA factor reduced from 94.0 IU/ml to 50.0 IU/ml, CRP reduced from 22.7 mg/L to 1.8 mg/L, and IgE was reduced from 680 kU/L to 53.7 kU/L, with remarkable reduction in joints pain and swelling. Further, by avoiding specific Nidanas, i.e., known allergens for food, drugs, and inhalants, the patient has relief in almost all signs and symptoms for the past 1 year of follow-up with least medications. This single case report highlights that Amavata/RA can be managed with appropriate diet regimen, Virechanakarma and can be managed effectively with minimum requirement of medicines.
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Pharmaceutical standardization of Kamsaharitaki granules p. 416
Nidhi Khemuka, R Galib, Biswa Jyoti Patgiri, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
Introduction: Kamsaharitaki Avaleha is a well-known ayurvedic preparation. Considering certain inconveniences of Avaleha, an attempt has been made to convert it into granules that are convenient in handling, dispensing, and storage. Aim: To convert Kamsaharitaki Avaleha into granules form and develop standard manufacturing procedure. Materials and Methods: Seven pilot batches were prepared to fix the ratio of formulation composition. The procedure was repeated for 14 times to ensure the process validation. Results: Converting into granules in presence of jaggery and Haritaki pulp is found to be difficult. Replacing these two with Khanda Sharkara and Haritaki powder yielded desired characteristics of granules. Conclusion: This modified proportion of ingredients can be considered as standard in preparing Kamsaharitaki Avaleha granules. As no manufacturing and physicochemical properties are available for Kamsaharitaki granules; the current findings can be considered as standard for future studies.
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In vitro thrombolytic activity of Dhamasa (Fagonia arabica Linn.), Kushta (Saussurea lappa Decne.), and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Thunb.) p. 421
Shweta Chaudhary, Pawan Kumar Godatwar, Reetu Sharma
Introduction: Thrombotic disorders are among the major fatal conditions affecting the society. Treatment modalities used for such disorders are either surgical interventions or use of drugs such as urokinase, streptokinase (SK), or tissue plasminogen activators to dissolve the blood clots. These modalities have their own limitations and side effects apart from being expensive. There is a need for safer and cost effective antithrombolytic agents. Aim: To evaluate in vitro thrombolytic property of Dhamasa (Fagonia arabica Linn.), Kushta (Saussurea lappa Decne.), and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Thunb.) plant extract. Materials and Methods: Venous blood drawn from 20 healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which was weighed and treated with the extract of test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. SK was used as a positive and water as a negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: The significance between % clot lysis of five groups by means of weight difference was tested by the one-way ANOVA. Results: Clot lysis observed were 68.06%, 14.85%, 25.01%, 92.54%, and 3.00% for Dhamasa, Kushta, Guduchi, SK, and distilled water, respectively. Conclusion: Herbal extracts possess thrombolytic properties and lyse blood clots in vitro.
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Evaluation of antinociceptive and antirheumatic activity of Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. using experimental models p. 425
Raxit P Rachchh, Varsha J Galani
Introduction: Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. (Asteraceae), a popular Indian medicinal plant is traditionally used for rheumatism in the knee joint and pain in the muscles. Aim: To investigate antinociceptive and antirheumatic activity of G. maderaspatana (L.) Poir. using experimental models. Materials and Methods: Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of G. maderaspatana (L.) Poir. (GMME) (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated in rats using tail flick test. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of GMME (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)- induced arthritis models. The degree of arthritis was evaluated by hind paw swelling, body weight changes, arthritic index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), and C-reactive protein (CRP) supported by histopathology of ankle joints. Results: GMME treatment showed a significant increase in the latency for tail flick and provided significant protection against carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. 21 days treatment of GMME significantly inhibited paw edema found to be induced by arthritis by CFA in rats. Further, GMME treatment also reversed arthritic index and loss of body weight and reduced CFA-induced rise of ESR, RF, and CRP significantly in rats. Histopathological study of ankle joint revealed that GMME inhibited edema formation and cellular infiltration induced by CFA. Conclusions: GMME possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antirheumatic activities.
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Assessment of cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea Linn. against human colon adenocarcinoma and vero cell line p. 432
Prashant Y Mali
Background: Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Portulacaceae) is commonly known as purslane in English. In traditional system it is used to cure diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, asthma, and piles, reduce small tumors and inflammations. Aim: To assess cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15) and normal (Vero) cell line. Materials and Methods: Characterization of chloroform extract of P. oleracea by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed. Cytotoxicity (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used for assessment of cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea. The concentrations of 1000–0.05 μg/ml were used in the experiment. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. Results: FTIR spectrum showed the peak at 1019.52 and 1396.21 center. The 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) of chloroform extract of P. oleracea and doxorubicin was 1132.02 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml against human colon adenocarcinoma and 767.60 μg/ml and 2392.71 μg/ml against Vero cell line, respectively.Conclusion: Chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant was less efficient or does not have cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. It was not safe to normal Vero cell line. But, there is a need to isolate, identify, and confirm the phytoconstituents present in extract by sophisticated analytical techniques.
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Evaluation of acute toxicity and intestinal transit time of Olax scandens Roxb. leaves p. 437
Raghavendra Naik, Rabinarayan Acharya, Mukesh B Nariya, Sneha D Borkar
Introduction: Olax scandens Roxb. is a shrub or small tree found throughout tropical India. Fruits and leaves of this plant are used for medicinal and food purpose. Traditionally, leaves of O. scandens are used as vegetable in constipation. Aim: To evaluate the acute toxicity and intestinal transit time of O. scandens leaves on experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study for sample was carried out following OECD guidelines. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out in the dose of 1300 mg/kg by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of the onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter in mice. Results: The results show that the test drug is not likely to produce any toxicity in higher dose. In kaolin expulsion test, the drug produced mild increase in intestinal motility in mice proved by fast clearance of kaolin pellet in comparison to control group. Conclusion: The leaves of O. scandens are safe at higher dose and showed mild laxative activity in the dose of 1300 mg/kg body weight of mice.
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