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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2013
Volume 34 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 337-451

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EDITORIAL  

Pharmacological expression of Rasayanakarma Highly accessed article p. 337
K Nishteswar
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127672  PMID:24696568
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH Top

Assessment of Lekhana Basti in the management of hyperlipidemia p. 339
Swapnil S Auti, Anup B Thakar, Vinay J Shukla, B Ravishankar
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127683  PMID:24696569
Hyperlipidemia is highly prevalent and is closely related to coronary heart disease which is the most common cause of death. Raised cholesterol is estimated to be responsible for 18% of cerebrovascular disease and 56% of ischemic heart disease. Overall, these diseases account for about 4.4 million deaths (7.9% of the total). Based upon the etiological factors and symptom complexes, hyperlipidemia can be considered as a part of Medoroga. Being a Tikshna formulation, the treatment modality of Lekhana Basti is aimed basically for Apatarpana (emaciation) of the body, as Basti is the fastest Apatarpana. In the present clinical trial, a total of 22 patients were registered of whom 19 patients completed the course of the therapy. Under randomization, the registered patients were divided into two groups of which group A was treated with Lekhana Basti and group B was administered standard control drug, i.e., Triphala Guggulu, for 21 days. The results of the study revealed that in patients treated with Lekhana Basti, there was a decrease of about 4.99% in S. cholesterol, 9.13% in S. low density lipoprotein (LDL), and 0.36% in S. apolipoprotein B. Lekhana Basti was found to have significant effect in reducing the symptoms of Medodushti and in reduction of objective parameters like weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, body circumferences such as chest, abdomen, hip, pelvis, mid-thigh circumference, etc., and skin fold thickness as biceps, triceps, mid-arm, and abdominal skinfold thickness.
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Effect of Sameera Pannaga Rasa (arsenomercurial formulation) in the management of Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) - Randomized double blind clinical study p. 346
Mayur Mashru, R Galib, Vinay J Shukla, B Ravishankar, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127692  PMID:24696570
Asthma represents a profound world-wide public health problem. The most effective anti-asthmatic drugs currently available include β2-agonists and glucocorticoids which can controls asthma in about 90-95% of patients. In Ayurveda, this miserable condition is comparable with Tamaka Shwasa type of Shwasa Roga. In the present study, 52 patients were treated with Sameera Pannaga Rasa at a dose of 30 mg twice a day for 4 weeks along with Nagavallidala (leaf of Piper betel Linn.) The results were assessed in terms of clinical recovery, symptomatic relief, pulmonary function improvement and on subjective and objective parameters. A significant improvement in subjective parameters, control on asthma, recurrence of asthma, increase in peak expiratory flow rate, considerable decrease in total and absolute, acute eosinophil count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed. Overall marked improvement was found in 33.33%, moderate improvement in 44.44% and mild improvement in 20.00% was observed. The study reveals that Sameera Pannaga Rasa can be used as an effective drug in bronchial asthma.
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Evaluation of diet and life style in the etiopathogenesis of Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer dyspepsia) p. 352
Umapati C Baragi, Mahesh Kumar Vyas
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127705  PMID:24695749
For a long time, infectious (communicable) diseases were the biggest killer diseases globally. But now, the trend is changing toward increased prevalence of chronic diseases with causative factors mostly related to diet and lifestyle. Among them, Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer dyspepsia), a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorder, has acquired majority of the share with causative factors like improper diet and habits, stress, spicy irritant food, oily foods, bakery products, etc., A survey study was conducted on 138 patients, irrespective of sex, religion, etc., who had presented with the clinical symptoms of Urdhwaga Amlapitta and attended the OPD of Department of Basic Principles, at I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, between February 2009 and June 2010. Information on demography, dietary intake, and lifestyle factors was collected by standard questionnaires. The data revealed that majority of the patients indulged in faulty dietary habits like excess Katu Ahara Sevana (99.3%), Amla Ahara (95.65%), Guru Ahara (90.57%), Snigdha Ahara (86.23%), Viruddha (81.88%), Abhishyandi Ahara (81.88%), Atiushna Ahara (73.9%), Vidahi (51.44%), Pistanna (47.10%), etc., and the data on lifestyle revealed that majority of the patients indulged in Diwasvapna (89.85%), Antarodaka Paanam (81.88%), Chinta (79.71%), etc., This survey study upholds the novel concept of diet and lifestyle of Ayurveda. The data reflects that dietary patterns, lifestyle choices, and physical activities play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of Urdhwaga Amlapitta, and it is important for patients to have access to diet and lifestyle modifications. Currently, research in this area is minimal.
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Scientific study of Charakokta Anguli Pramana in reference to human height p. 356
Shashikant K Muley, Ajit A Surve, Swati D Bhingare
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127709  PMID:24696571
Ayurveda has dynamic and creative view on health and gives importance to the individual while managing his health and also during treating the diseases. Ayurveda is a system of health science which not only includes the knowledge of body and diseases but also includes the way of living healthy i.e., "Swastha0". The concept of Maana-Pramana is one of the significant contributions of Ayurveda. This study was undertaken to evaluate the Charakokta Sutra (verse) which implies that "Height (Aayama) of human being is 84 fingers (Anguli) and is equal to Arm Span (Vistaara)". In the present study, anthropometric measurements by finger were taken and exact site of particular finger in a manner to execute "Anguli Sthana Nishchiti" was determined. The data of Aayama and Vistaara of the 100 volunteers was recorded and statistically analysed. After comparing the Anguli Pramana (Measurement through finger) obtained at 78 different sites of both hands, it was established that measurement of Anguli Pramana at the site of medio-lateral proximal interphalangeal joint of middle finger of right and left hand, would be most accurate in estimating Anguli Pramana.
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Endoscopic evaluation of therapeutic effects of "Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama" in Pratishyaya w.s.r. to mucociliary clearance mechanism and Bernoulli's principle p. 361
Atul Bhardwaj, Mahendra Kumar Sharma, Manoj Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127714  PMID:24696572
The current endeavor intended to evaluate the effectiveness and mode of action of Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama (AVP), i.e., alternate nasal breathing exercise, in resolving clinical features of Pratishyaya, i.e., rhinosinusitis. The present study was directed to validate the use of classical "saccharin test" in measuring the nasal health by measuring mucociliary clearance time. This study also highlights the effects of AVP by application of Bernoulli principle in ventilation of paranasal sinuses and surface oxygenation of nasal and paranasal sinuses ciliary epithelium. Clinically, endoscopically and radiologically diagnosed patients of Pratishyaya, i.e., rhinosinusitis, satisfying the inclusion criteria were selected to perform AVP as a breathing exercise regularly for 30 min every day in order to evaluate the effectiveness of AVP in resolving features of rhinosinusitis. Saccharin test was performed before and after completion of 40 days trial to assess the nasal ciliary activity, which has been proved to be directly related to the health of ciliary epithelium and nasal health overall as well. AVP may be regarded as a catalyst to conspicuously enhance ventilation and oxygenation of the paranasal sinuses and the positively effect the nasal respiratory epithelium by increasing better surface availability of oxygen and negative pressure in the nasal cavity itself.
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Clinical evaluation of Bilvadileha in the management of irritable bowel syndrome p. 368
Ramanand Tiwari, Darshana H Pandya, Madhav Singh Baghel
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127717  PMID:24696573
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common conditions encountered in clinical practice but one of the least well understood. Symptoms of this disorder are chronic, sometimes severe and often respond poorly to treatment, resulting in reduced quality of life. There is no specific test for IBS, although diagnostic tests may be performed to rule out other problems. In present clinical trial 51 patients of IBS were registered out of which 46 patients completed the treatment. Bilvadileha was administered for the duration of 12 weeks. The therapy showed statistically significant improvement in all the clinical features of IBS as well as in the IBS severity score.
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Effect of selected Samana and Vicitra Pratyayarabdha Dravya w.s.r. to Vipaka p. 373
Anuruchi Jadoun, Rambabu Dwivedi
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127718  PMID:24696574
Concept of Arabdhata and Pratyayarabdhata is a unique concept of Ayurveda, which is related to the conjugation and configuration of Mahabhutas (penta elements). Every substance undergoes some changes during digestion and metabolism in terms of changes in its Panchabhautika composition. If substance retains its Panchabhautika composition throughout the digestion and metabolism, it is known as Samana Pratyayarabdhata and if Panchabhautika composition of substance becomes totally different after digestion and metabolism, it is known as Vicitra Pratyayarabdhata. The change in Panchabhautika composition of substance can be seen at the level of Vipaka (post-digestive effect) or Virya (potency), which are not found according to Rasa (taste) and hence the Karma (action) of substance becomes different from its Rasa. Therefore, four drugs were selected, two having Samana Pratyayarabdhata (Nimba and Vasa) and two having Vicitra Pratyayarabdhata (Bhumyamalaki and Shankhapushpi). Clinical study was carried out on 24 healthy volunteers having Madhyama Koshta, divided into four groups, one group for each drug. The effects of drugs were assessed according to their Vipaka on Koshta (Bowel habit) especially on stool and habit of defecation (Srishtavinmutrata or Baddhavinmutrata). All the drugs showed effect according to their Vipaka in few parameters, but most of the results were statistically insignificant which suggested that substances perform their action according to their Pratyayarabdhata.
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Clinical study to evaluate the effect of Virechanakarma on serum electrolytes p. 379
Adil Rais, Santoshkumar Bhatted
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127719  PMID:24696575
Panchakarma therapy aims at the elimination of excessive Doshas from the body to maintain the state of health for a longer duration, while the Shamana therapy is for suppression of vitiated Doshas within the body. Virechana is one of the Panchakarma therapies wherein purgation is induced by drugs and it specifically aims at the elimination of excessive Pitta Dosha from the body. Normally, after Virechanakarma, patient does not complain of having any untoward like those present after diarrhea due to dehydration. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Virechanakarma on serum electrolyte levels and to ascertain the safety of therapeutic purgation. This study involved estimation of serum electrolyte levels before and after Virechana in 15 patients and the results are suggestive of safe application of the Virechana therapy as the deviation in electrolyte levels were within the normal range.
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Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children p. 383
Atul Shankar Sarokte, Mangalagowri V Rao
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127720  PMID:24695779
Excellent memory, extraordinary intelligence, great academic achievement, and successful career are the dreams of every individual in this era of competition and professionalism. A good memory power acts as a catalyst in all walks of life, be it academic success or maintenance of personal relationships. It is observed that an average man uses only 10% of his natural memory. Remaining 90% is left unused in a haphazard manner. As per the American psychologist Carl Emil Seashore, if one is alert and makes systematic attempts to awaken and use the natural memory properly, his/her natural memory would be activated creatively and would offer benefits of higher order. A comparative study was conducted comprising 90 subjects to know the efficacy of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in short-term memory of school-going children. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. It was an open, prospective, and randomized clinical study. The subjects of group A formed the control group and they were observed silently for 3 months without any intervention. The subjects in group B were administered with Choorna (powder) of four Medhya Rasayanas, Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. and Thoms.], and Sankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy), at a dose of 2 g twice daily with milk. Subjects belonging to group C were advocated regular Yogic practices of Asanas, Pranayama, and Dhyana. Further study revealed that among the three groups, group B treated with Medhya Rasayana showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to objective parameters in the tests, i.e. (1) short-term memory test pictures and (2) serial recall effects test using memory scope. Among the three groups, group C treated with Yogic practices showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to subjective and objective parameters in mini mental status scale i.e. test 3. The treatment is cost effective and devoid of side effects, which can be beneficial for the community. Mean increase after first follow-up in group B was higher as compared to group C. This shows that Medhya Rasayanas are quick in action and bring about improvement in memory faster when compared with Yogic practices. So, on the whole, group B can be considered to be the most efficient among the three groups.
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A clinical study on the role of Agnimanthadi compound and Vashpa Svedana in the management of Sthaulya (obesity) p. 390
Ravikant Goyal, Mandip Goyal, Hari Mohan Chandola
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127721  PMID:24696576
Currently more than 1 billion adults are overweight (Sthula) and at least 300 million of them are clinically obese. Obesity leads to adverse metabolic effects on blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Present study was planned to assess the role of Agnimanthadi compound containing Agnimantha, Mustaka, Gomutra (cow's urine), and Eranda Patra Kshara and Vashpa Svedana (VS) (generalized steaming) in the management of obesity. 80 patients of Sthaulya (obesity) were selected out of which 67 completed the treatment and they were treated in two groups. Amongst these, 38 patients were treated with Agnimanthadi compound in the dose of 2 gram (four capsules of 500 mg) 3 times a day with lukewarm water before meal and remaining 29 patients were given VS only. The duration of treatment in both groups was 7 weeks with follow-up for 2 months after the completion of treatment. Analysis of the overall effects of both the groups showed that VS provided marked reduction in weight, body mass index, and other signs and symptoms in patients of Sthaulya in comparison to the Agnimanthadi treated group.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CASE STUDY Top

Effect of Basti (oil enema) therapy for the management of cough in pertussis p. 397
Rahul H Gujarathi, Vivek M Gokhale, Jayashree N Tongaonkar
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127722  PMID:24696577
Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination coverage. Sporadic cases are still observed either due to no vaccination, incomplete vaccination or as a result of failure of vaccination. Though acute in nature it has a longer disease span with multiple life-threatening complications despite adequate management. This study was undertaken to study the effect of Sneha Basti (oil enema) in pertussis in relation to reduction in intensity of cough and complications of the disease when administered along with the conventional pharmacological therapy. Patients with the clinical picture mimicking pertussis were screened, investigated for pertussis and appropriate conventional pharmacological therapy of Erythromycin a preferred antimicrobial agent was started. Concurrently, Sneha Basti was administered to these two children. Both patients showed favourable results in terms of reduction of Kasa (cough) and the disease period with a faster recovery when compared to conventional therapy alone as has been observed routinely. No complications incurred during the complete disease span. It was concluded that if the pharmacological therapy is augmented with the complimentary systems of medicines, it can reduce the prolonged span and intensity of the disease and prevent other complications.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION Top

Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) p. 401
N Rajashekhara, Vinay J Shukla, B Ravishankar, Parameshwar P Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127723  PMID:24696578
Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar.
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Comparative pharmacognostical and phytochemical study on Bergenia ligulata Wall. and Ammania buccifera Linn p. 406
Switu Jani, Vinay J Shukla, CR Harisha
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127724  PMID:24696579
"Pashanbheda0" is a controversial plant. Pharmacopeia considers Bergenia ligulata as official source of Pashanbheda and official substitute is Avera lanta. Review of the literature reveals that 23 different plants are reported in name of "Pashanbheda". Ammania buccifera is an adulterant, which is used in Kerala under the name of Pashanbheda, found in moist places of India. The present study was undertaken to compare the roots of both the plants and to have a brief view point on similarities and dissimilarities between the plants. The pharmacognostical evaluation reveals that the rosette crystals of B. ligulata are bigger in size compared to that of A. buccifera and cork is present in B. ligulata, whereas it is absent in A. buccifera. HPTLC shows similar Rf values of both the drug, The quantitative estimation showed that total phenol content of both the drug was almost equal.
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Comparative physico-chemical profile of Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds processed through water and Nimbu Swarasa (lemon juice) p. 411
Sudipta Roy, Rabinarayan Acharya, Vinay J Shukla
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127725  PMID:24696580
Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.), known as Indian liquorice, is reputed as one of the world's most deadly but most beautiful seed belonging to the family Fabaceae, characterised under the Upavisha (semi-poisonous drugs) and used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Gunja only after proper Shodhana (purification procedures) in different media such as Godugdha (cow's milk), Kanji (sour gruel), etc., Apart from the classical methods, some traditional practitioners use Nimbu Swarasa for the Shodhana of Gunja seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to carry out Shodhana of Gunja seeds using Nimbu Swarasa and water. This study revealed differences in physico-chemical parameters of purified samples, in comparison to raw drugs.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES - PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY Top

Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Guduchi Satva in experimental animals p. 417
Rohit Sharma, Vijay Kumar, BK Ashok, R Galib, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati, B Ravishankar
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127726  PMID:24695802
Over the centuries, herbs have served as a major source of medicines for prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. These herbs are getting more importance around the globe and many studies have provided safety and efficacy of such herbal drugs in different condition. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers) is reported as highly potent Pramehahara (anti-diabetic) herb in Ayurveda and Guduchi Satva (GS) is popularly used to treat Paittika type of Prameha. In the present study, GS prepared from the stem of T. cordifolia was evaluated for hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in 18 h fasted mice. GS was suspended in distilled water and administered to animals at the dose of 130 mg/kg that showed the marginal reduction in blood sugar level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice. In anti-hyperglycemic activity, administration of GS prior to glucose over load failed to attenuate BSL at all-time interval in comparison to glucose control group. The study concludes that mild hypoglycemic insignificant anti-hyperglycemic activities of GS.
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Effects of ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica L. on rat cognitive dysfunctions p. 421
Gireesh Kumar Singh, Geeta Rai, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee, Vikas Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127727  PMID:24696581
Fumaria indica L. in Ayurveda is known as Parpat and traditionally used to calm the brain. Due to lack of scientific validation, 50% ethanolic extract of F. indica L. (FI) was evaluated for putative cognitive function modulating effects. Suspension of FI in 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was orally administered to rats during the entire experimental period of 16 days at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. Piracetam was used as standard nootropic. Behavioral models of learning and memory used were modified elevated plus-maze (M-EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.), sodium nitrite (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and electroconvulsive shock (150 mA, 0.2 sec) were used to induce amnesia . Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, muscarinic receptor density, oxidative status, and cytokine expressions [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10] were also assessed. Piracetam (500 mg/kg/day)-like memory-enhancing and anti-amnesic activity of the extract was observed. FI showed dose-dependent decrease in brain AChE activity and increase in muscarinic receptor density, and such was also the case for its observed beneficial effects on the brain antioxidative status. FI also inhibited the scopolamine-induced overexpression of the three tested cytokines observed in rat's brain. FI possesses nootropic-like beneficial effects on cognitive functions.
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Evaluation of intestinal transit time of root and leaves of Ipomea sepiaria p. 430
Sayani Majumder, BK Ashok, K Nishteswar
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127729  PMID:24696582
Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig Ex. Roxb is considered to be one of the source plants of the classical herb Lakshmana. In folklore, the herb is well known for its laxative activity. This plant belongs to Convolvulaceae family. It is observed that the plants of this family especially the species of Ipomoea are rich in purgative resins. The present experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effect of leaf and root of I. sepiaria on intestinal transit time on Swiss albino mice and the test drugs were administered in dose of 400 mg/kg. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter. The results shows that both root and leaf samples of I. sepiaria have marked intestinal motility enhancing property, among which leaf sample is found to be better. Hence, for the therapeutic purpose leaf can be preferred to get better activity profile and also to prevent destructive harvesting of the plant.
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Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats p. 433
Karuna A Talpate, Uma A Bhosale, Mandar R Zambare, Rahul Somani
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127730  PMID:24696583
Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea Linn. (EECT) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Antihyperglycemic activity of EECT was studied in normal fasted and glucose fed hyperglycemic and epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats by estimating fasting serum glucose (FSG) by glucose oxidisae or peroxidase enzymatic method. Antioxidant activity of EECT was studied by assaying lipid peroxide/Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide, catalase (CAT) and glutathione levels in diabetic rats. The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by decreasing FSG in all hyperglycemic models except epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats; in which improvement in FSG was observed only with EECT in 400 mg/kg dose, whereas significant decrease in TBARS (P < 0.001), nitric oxide (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD (P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.01) and reduced glutathione levels (P < 0.001) was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. The results indicated that EECT has remedial effects on hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
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Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters p. 440
Snehal S Patel, Ramesh K Goyal, Rajendra S Shah, Pravin R Tirgar, Pinakin D Jadav
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127731  PMID:24696584
Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUC glucose , cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUC insulin , and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property.
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An in-vitro evaluation of the efficacy of garlic extract as an antimicrobial agent on periodontal pathogens: A microbiological study p. 445
Sunaina Shetty, Biju Thomas, Veena Shetty, Rahul Bhandary, Raghavendra M Shetty
DOI:10.4103/0974-8520.127732  PMID:24695825
With the rise in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, there is considerable interest in the development of other classes of antimicrobials for the control of infection. Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) has been used as medicine since ancient times and has long been known to have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. This study was undertaken to assess the inhibitory effect of garlic on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, to assess the time-kill curve of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, and to determine the antiproteolytic activity of garlic on P. gingivalis. Ethanolic garlic extract (EGE) and aqueous garlic extract (AGE) were prepared and the inhibitory effects of these extracts for two periodontal pathogens (P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans) were tested. Antiproteolytic activity on protease of P. gingivalis was determined. 25 microliter (μl), 50 μl, and 75 μl of AGE showed 16 mm, 20 mm, and 25 mm zone of inhibition, respectively, on P. gingivalis. The AGE showed greater bacteriostatic activity against the P. gingivalis with minimum inhibitory concentration determined at 16.6 μl/ml. The time-kill assay of AGE and EGE were compared for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. AGE showed better antiproteolytic activity on total protease of P. gingivalis compared to the EGE. Thus, the study concludes the antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against periodontal pathogens, P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its action against P. gingivalis includes inhibition of total protease activity, and this raises the possibility that garlic may have therapeutic use for periodontitis and possibly other oral infections.
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