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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2018
Volume 39 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 119-196

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EDITORIAL  

Lifestyle intervention: A preventive approach for non-communicable diseases Highly accessed article p. 119
Mandip Goyal
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_26_19  PMID:31000986
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Significance of Shringagrahika Nyaya (maxim) in understanding Charaka Samhita in context to commentary of Chakrapani p. 121
Rajkumar Chinthala, Shubhangi Kamble, AS Baghel, N N L Bhagavathi
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_47_18  PMID:31000987
Background: Ancient Ayurveda seers presented the knowledge in coded language, in the form of Sutras (verses). These verses are characterized by Padairalpam, Matimbuddhwa, i.e. having few words with concealed meaning with larger applications which can be explored with the help of Sanskrit grammar. Sometimes, just translation of the original verses might not convey the authentic and primary aim of the author as it depends on various factors such as the context, time and place. For this purpose, various commentators have adopted the methodology of integrating Nyayas (maxims) in their respective commentaries. Shringagrahika Nyaya (SGN) also belongs to the same category as it has been mentioned in several contexts in Chakrapani's Ayurveda Dipika (AD) commentary on Charaka Samhita. It is the maxim of seizing the ox by its horns. The present work is an attempt to explore the different contexts of SGN in AD commentary. Aim and Objective: To explore the significance of SGN in understanding Charaka Samhita in context to AD commentary of Chakrapani. Materials and Methods: Original text of Charaka Samhita along with Chakrapani's commentary, other available translations and published articles in peer-reviewed journals, published books and subject-related material available online have been thoroughly screened, compiled, organized and described in a systematic manner. Observations: Thorough screening of AD commentary of Charaka Samhita revealed that SGN has been mentioned in 12 different contexts out of which some are in positive and some are in negative sense. In a group of similar objects to indicate a particular one, this maxim has been used. Conclusion: To get authentic apprehension of Ayurvedic treatises, the knowledge of SGN is essential for the physicians, especially for better understanding of Charaka Samhita as well as successful implementation of fundamental concepts for the management of various disease conditions.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Variation in skin hydration on the basis of Deha Prakriti (body constitution): A cross-sectional observational study p. 127
Umarkar V Suwarna, Vyas M Deepak, Kulkarni B Sheela, Sathe D Kalpana
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_171_16  PMID:31000988
Background: Prakriti (body constitution) is an important concept of Ayurveda which is decided at the time of birth. It shows differences in physical, physiological and psychological characteristics of an individual. Variation in skin characteristics is found as per Prakriti. Aim: The aim of the present work was to study hydration of skin over volar forearm in people with different Prakriti with the help of skin diagnostic SD 27 instrument. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Cosmetic Technology Department in unmarried healthy female students of (18–30 years). A total of 904 volunteers were screened, of which 621 volunteers were further examined for Deha Prakriti for screening of single Dosha dominant Prakriti. 58 Vata, 70 Pitta and 61 Kapha dominant Prakriti were eligible for further study, but on actual day of skin examination, 50 volunteers in each group completed the study. Skin hydration was measured by skin diagnostic SD 27 instrument. Results: It was found that maximum people with Vata (92%) and Pitta dominantPrakriti (70%) had less hydration while (48%) Kapha dominant Prakriti volunteers had normal to dehydrated skin. Chi-square test was used for analysis. The Chi-square value is 45.9 and P= 0.0001, which is highly significant. Conclusion: The skin of Vata and Pitta dominant Prakriti had less hydration while hydration was well maintained in Kapha dominant Prakriti than that of Vata and Pitta Prakriti people.
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A descriptive cross-sectional study on various uses and outcomes of Garcinia kola among people of Oshimili North in the Delta State of Nigeria p. 132
Vincent Icheku, Ifeanyichukwu Fidelis Onianwah, Augustine Nwulia
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_195_16  PMID:31000989
Background: A preliminary review of literature for this study shows that the use of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) as plant medicine is common among Africans but there are no scientific evidence to support its uses to prevent or treat common medical conditions. The main purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the various uses and outcomes of Garcinia kola (G. kola) among people of Oshimili North in the Delta State of Nigeria. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was based on a structured questionnaire for adults aged 18 and above (n = 274) in Oshimili North local government area of Delta State of Nigeria. Likert scale data were coded as follows: 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neutral, 4 = agree and 5 = strongly agree. As Likert-type data are usually ordinal data, which make more sense when converted to interval data. The converted ordinal data were analyzed using SPSS computer software. Ethical requirement including the administration of information sheet, written informed consent, and the provision of confidentiality was ensured. Results: The analysis of results show that the benefits derived from ingesting bitter kola were rated high for cough, bacterial or viral infection and anticancer. The results also show that most of the respondents consider bitter kola having low benefits for relieving food poison, diarrhea or stomach upset. Chi-square results show no association between gender and perceived benefits of bitter kola for relieving these conditions. In addition, results show that females perceive benefits derive from ingesting bitter kola as low as an aphrodisiac whereas males consider it as average. Chi-square results show significant association between gender and perceived benefits of bitter kola as an aphrodisiac. Conclusion: The study found that Garcinia kola acts as anti-bacteria, anti-virus and provides protection against cancer. However, this study could not find any conclusive evidence to support the age long claim of bitter kola as treatment for food poison, diarrhea or stomach upset and aphrodisiac (libido).
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Linking Prameha etiology with diabetes mellitus: Inferences from a matched case–control study p. 139
Sanjeev Rastogi, Nripendra Pandey, Kamal Sachdev
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_106_18  PMID:31000990
Background: Diabetes is one of the most rapidly increasing disease in the contemporary context. Its rapid global rise indicates that its cause are possibly closely associated with the routine lifestyle and eating habits. Diabetes is also possibly the medical condition, which presents with a preclinical phase having a possibility of reversal if its possible causes can be seriously understood and eliminated. Experiences of diabetes management so far had not been very promising either in prevention of its incidence or spread and prevention of its complications. Aims and Objective: In this case, preventing diabetes by attempting to identify the risk factors and then proposing the ways to avoid them could be a most pragmatic way forward. Material and Methods: This study has attempted to associate Ayurvedic causes of Prameha with diabetes in a matched case–control manner (n = 24) and has shown the high association of diabetes with a few relatively less known causes such as stress (odds ratio [OR]: 7.86:1), anger (OR: 5.9:1), and excessive exposure to high ambient temperature (OR: 4.6:1). Results: Among the causative factors showing a high OR, stress and anger were particularly found statistically significant (P = 0.0173 and 0.0145, respectively). Conclusion: On the basis of these results, this can be proposed that if such studies are done on larger basis and possibly in a prospective cohort manner, it can open a completely new area of identifying the risk factors to diabetes. Such revealing knowledge will not only help us knowing about diabetes better but also definitely help us to prevent diabetes to a large extent.
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Association of Kaphaja and Kapha-Pittaja Prakriti and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T allele with type 2 diabetes p. 146
Archana Gupta, Akhtar Ali, Priyadarshini Tewari, Neeraj Kumar Agrawal, Rashmi Patel, Parameswarappa Shivappa Byadgi
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_230_18  PMID:31000991
Background and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disorder that results from the interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Different Prakriti (body constitution) individuals have different susceptibility for the diseases, and this Prakriti is determined by both genetic and environmental factor. This study was undertaken to determine the association status of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C with type 2 diabetes and Prakriti. Materials and Methods: After informed consent, 54 patients with type 2 diabetes and 56 individuals as normal controls were analyzed. Their constitution and pathological data were collected and MTHFR C677T and A1298C genotypes were determined. Results: Kapha/Kapha-Pittaja Prakriti were associated and found to be strong risk factors (Chi-square test = 39.67, P < 0.00001, odds ratio [OR] = 16.133, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.32–41.20) for type 2 diabetes. MTHFR C677T was associated (Chi-square test = 7.743, P= 0.02) with type 2 diabetes where the major CC genotype was found to be a risk for type 2 diabetes (OR = 3.78, 95% CI = 1.14–12.45). A1298C was not associated with type 2 diabetes (Chi-square test = 2.264,P= 0.322). None of the Prakriti was associated with C677T and A1298C variants. Interpretation and Conclusion: In the present study, an extremely strong association between Prakriti (Kaphaja/Kapha-Pittaja) and type 2 diabetes (P < 0.00001) was detected. The present study gives a strong clue for the association of Prakriti (body constitutional) and clinical phenotype.
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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES Top

Phytopharmacognostical investigations on root and stem of Dalbergia volubilis Roxb.: An extrapharmacopoeial plant of Ayurveda p. 151
Rabinarayan Acharya, Switu V Jani, CR Harisha, Vinay J Shukla
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_48_18  PMID:31000992
Introduction: The roots and stem of Dalbergia volubilis Roxb. are used by tribals for management of various ailments. Aims: The aim was to study the macro- and microscopic characters, physiochemical and preliminary phytochemical parameters including high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) of D. volubilis root and stem. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on authenticated plant materials, following standard procedures and standard deviation was calculated using Microsoft Excel. Results: Externally, the root is creamish to dark brown in color and internally creamish, and its transverse section reveals general anatomy of dicot root. Young greenish stem, on drying, turns maroon or dark brown in color and microscopy shows dicot stem anatomy with secondary growth. Powder microscopy of root and stem reveals the presence of starch grains and rhomboidal crystals. Physicochemical parameters reveal that loss on drying of root is 10.02% w/w and stem is 7.51% w/w. Spectral comparison of similar Rfis 0.95, 0.82, 0.94 and 0.95 at short and long ultraviolet, respectively. Conclusion: D. volubilis root can be identified by the presence of abundance of starch grain, brown content and intraxylary pitting. Presence of hooks, interxylary phloem and crystal fiber are one of the rare anomalous growth patterns in stem. Results of preliminary phytochemical analysis including HPTLC on root and stem will help in further standardization.
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Comparative pharmacognostical analysis through quantitative micrometry and analytical study on Mridu and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara p. 159
Monica Shrestha, CR Harisha, Tukaram S Dudhamal, Riddhi Kanakhara
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_59_18  PMID:31000993
Introduction: Kshara is derived from the word “Ksharana” that means as something that mobilizes and removes the deformed flesh, skin, tissue, etc., due to its corrosive nature (Ksharanata). Pratisarniya Kshara has been further classified into three types on the basis of its potency – Mridu (mild), Madhyama (moderate) and Tikshna (strong). This study aims at comparison between (Mridu and Tikshna) Apamarga Kshara on the basis of pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical evaluation. Materials and Methods: Apamarga Panchanga (whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.) was collected, and authentication was done by the expert. Mridu Apamarga Kshara (MAK) andTikshna Apamarga Kshara (TAK) were prepared as proposed by Sushruta Samhita. Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical analyses were carried out according to standard protocol. Observation and Results: Both the Kshara showed their own peculiar crystal system and analytical findings showed higher pH value (10.65) and calcium content (6.1%) in TAK as compared to MAK. Discussion: Quantitative micrometric microscopy showed more amount of crystals in TAK (13/mm2) than MAK (6/mm2), which may be due to Kapardika and Chitrakamoola (roots of Plumbago zeylenica Linn.). pH of MAK and TAK was 10.2 and 10.65, respectively. This result showed that TAK is more alkaline, which may be also due to Kapardika and Chitrakamoola. Conclusion: Sodium and potassium ion concentration was higher in MAK (Na+ = 26%, K+ = 45%) as compared to TAK (Na+ = 12.6%, K+ = 32.5%). Calcium ion estimation was lower (2.31%) in MAK and higher (6.1%) in TAK. These findings can be further used for the standardization purpose of Tikshna Kshara which may enrich the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.
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PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES Top

Antibacterial activity of garlic extract on cariogenic bacteria: An in vitro study p. 165
Minal Madhukar Kshirsagar, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Gundbakhta Nagappa Karibasappa, Prashanth K Vishwakarma, Jagdishchandra Bheemasain Vathar, Kapil Ramesh Sonawane, Harish Chaitram Jadhav, Vrushali Ramdas Khobragade
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_193_16  PMID:31000994
Background: Garlic (Allium Sativum) is ubiquitous, small and commonly used spice for processing food. There are many types of garlic and differ in shape, size, color, taste, number of cloves per bulb and storability. Objectives: To determine and compare the antibacterial activity of soft neck and hard neck species of garlic against cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Materials and Methods: The well diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of garlic against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. After incubation in an appropriate culture medium, diameter of zone of inhibition was measured to assess the antibacterial efficacy of garlic extract. Chlorhexidine mouthwash (ICPA HEALTH PRODUCTS LTD.) was kept as control group. Results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis test and independent 't' test. Thus, zone of inhibition (in mm) was analyzed using mean of all the readings obtained and the level of significance at <0.05 was considered statistically significant at 5% of level of significance. Results: Maximum zone of inhibition was found with hard neck garlic extract (24mm) followed by soft neck garlic extract (18mm) and Chlorhexidine (17mm) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Conclusion: Action of garlic against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus raises the possibility that it can be used for dental caries and other oral infections possibly.
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Influence of intrinsic microbes on phytochemical changes and antioxidant activity of the Ayurvedic fermented medicines: Balarishta and Chandanasava p. 169
Annadurai Vinothkanna, Soundarapandian Sekar
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_237_17  PMID:31000995
Background: Balarishta and Chandanasava are polyherbal-fermented medicines of Ayurveda. Objective: Investigation of native microbes, understanding phytochemical changes and antioxidant activities in these medicines. Methods: Microbial populations were enumerated using selective media and standard plating methods. Yeast and bacteria were identified using classical and molecular methods. Qualitative phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were carried out.In vitro antioxidant assays were performed with different assay systems. Results: Balarishta and Chandanasava possess two yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and six bacteria that are species of Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Brevibacillus. These microbes identified biochemically were authenticated with 16S and 18S rDNA sequence analysis and NCBI accession numbers. GC-MS analysis indicated that several compounds disappear as a result of fermentation while many are retained. The presence of new phytochemical compounds in the final stages of fermentation could be ascribed from the parent molecules that either disappeared or retained during fermentation. It suggests the biotransformation of phytochemicals by the mediation of intrinsic microbes. These medicines possess antioxidant activities by the presence of phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and phytosterols, wherein bacteria also contribute. Conclusion: The role of native microbial consortium in fermentation, biotransformation and antioxidant activity of these Arishta and Asava is demonstrated.
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Antifungal activity of curcumin-silver nanoparticles against fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates of Candida species p. 182
Sony Paul, Kalyani Mohanram, Iyanar Kannan
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_24_18  PMID:31000996
Introduction: Candida species is the common form of opportunistic fungal infections, especially in immunosuppressed individuals. Fluconazole is the first-line therapy for candidiasis as it is affordable and readily available. However, the antifungal resistance pattern in high-risk patients is a major concern. Aim: The objective of the present study was to assess the anticandidal activity of curcumin-silver nanoparticles (C-Ag-NPs) against fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Ten milliliters of 0.1 M silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 3 ml curcumin solution was heated in a water bath for 1 h at 60°C. The formation of the Ag-NPs was determined by color change from light yellow to brownish. The solution was centrifuged at 9000 rpm for 15 min and was washed with ethanol and later lyophilized for 24 h to obtain the purified curcumin-Ag-NPs (C-Ag-NPs). A stock of 1 mg/ml of C-Ag-NPs was prepared in deionized water. The agar diffusion test and broth dilution tests were conducted to determine the anticandidal activity of C-Ag-NPs. Results: C-Ag-NPs showed a better antifungal activity compared to curcumin and AgNO3solution. Candida glabrata and Candida albicans were the most inhibited and Candida tropicalis was the least inhibited species. The mean zone diameter was 22.2 ± 0.8 mm, 20.1 ± 0.8 mm, and 16.4 ± 0.7 mm against C. glabrata, C. albicans and C. tropicalis respectively. Other Candida species under the study were also inhibited. Inhibitory activity was dose dependent and it increased with concentration. The minimum inhibitory concentration values for different Candida species ranged from 31.2 μg/ml to 250 μg/ml. Conclusion: This is the first report on the antifungal activity of C-Ag-NPs against fluconazole-resistant Candida isolates. C-Ag-NPs can be explored further to identify a potential drug candidate that can be used for the treatment of candidiasis due to fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida species.
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PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY Top

Process standardization of Swarna Makshika Shodhana (purification) in Triphala Kwatha (decoction) p. 187
Krushn Kumar Taviad, Shweta Vekariya, Prashant Bedarkar, R Galib, BJ Patgiri
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_26_18  PMID:31000997
Background: Swarna Makshika (SM) is a brassy golden yellowish mineral with chemical composition of CuFeS2that is widely used in therapeutics to treat various disease conditions such as Prameha (diabetes), Panḍu (anemia), Kushtha (skin diseases) and Jwara (fever). This mineral needs to be processed by the following specified Ayurveda guidelines in order to make it therapeutically safe and more potent. These processes include Shodhana (preliminary process of eliminating unwanted substances), Marana (incineration) and Amritikarana (nectorization) that are mandatory and play a crucial role in therapeutics. However, till date, no published reports are available on standard manufacturing procedure of SM Shodhana. Objective: The objective of this study is to develop the standard manufacturing procedure of SM Shodhana. Materials and Methods: Methods described in Rasaratna Samuchhaya were followed to perform Shodhana process. Shodhana of SM was carried out in three batches (600 g in each batch) by seven quenching in Triphala Kwatha (TK, decoction of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia bellirica Roxb. and Phyllanthus emblica Linn.) maintaining batch manufacturing records. Organoleptic and physicochemical analysis of media, i.e., TK and SM was carried out. Results: After Shodhana, golden yellowish luster of SM was completely lost and it turned into dark black coarse powder. The hardness went on decreasing and brittleness went on increasing. Average 532 g of Shodhita SM (88.67%) from 600 g of SM was obtained. Average time required for achieving red hot stage was 24.81 min. Analysis of the media revealed an increase in pH, specific gravity, and total solid contents. Conclusion: The adopted method for Shodhana of 600 g of SM can be considered as easy, convenient and standard.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

“Chheam:” Classical Indochina phlebotomy wisdom p. 195
Sora Yasri, Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_11_18  PMID:31000998
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