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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 159-164  

Comparative pharmacognostical analysis through quantitative micrometry and analytical study on Mridu and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara


1 Department of Shalya Tantra, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy Laboratory, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication29-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Monica Shrestha
Department of Shalya Tantra, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ayu.AYU_59_18

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   Abstract 


Introduction: Kshara is derived from the word “Ksharana” that means as something that mobilizes and removes the deformed flesh, skin, tissue, etc., due to its corrosive nature (Ksharanata). Pratisarniya Kshara has been further classified into three types on the basis of its potency – Mridu (mild), Madhyama (moderate) and Tikshna (strong). This study aims at comparison between (Mridu and Tikshna) Apamarga Kshara on the basis of pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical evaluation. Materials and Methods: Apamarga Panchanga (whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.) was collected, and authentication was done by the expert. Mridu Apamarga Kshara (MAK) andTikshna Apamarga Kshara (TAK) were prepared as proposed by Sushruta Samhita. Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical analyses were carried out according to standard protocol. Observation and Results: Both the Kshara showed their own peculiar crystal system and analytical findings showed higher pH value (10.65) and calcium content (6.1%) in TAK as compared to MAK. Discussion: Quantitative micrometric microscopy showed more amount of crystals in TAK (13/mm2) than MAK (6/mm2), which may be due to Kapardika and Chitrakamoola (roots of Plumbago zeylenica Linn.). pH of MAK and TAK was 10.2 and 10.65, respectively. This result showed that TAK is more alkaline, which may be also due to Kapardika and Chitrakamoola. Conclusion: Sodium and potassium ion concentration was higher in MAK (Na+ = 26%, K+ = 45%) as compared to TAK (Na+ = 12.6%, K+ = 32.5%). Calcium ion estimation was lower (2.31%) in MAK and higher (6.1%) in TAK. These findings can be further used for the standardization purpose of Tikshna Kshara which may enrich the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

Keywords: Achyranthes aspera Linn, Apamarga Kshara, Mridu Kshara, quantimetric, Tikshna Kshara


How to cite this article:
Shrestha M, Harisha C R, Dudhamal TS, Kanakhara R. Comparative pharmacognostical analysis through quantitative micrometry and analytical study on Mridu and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara. AYU 2018;39:159-64

How to cite this URL:
Shrestha M, Harisha C R, Dudhamal TS, Kanakhara R. Comparative pharmacognostical analysis through quantitative micrometry and analytical study on Mridu and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara. AYU [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Aug 20];39:159-64. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2018/39/3/159/255258




   Introduction Top


Kshara” has scope in Shalya Tantra (surgical and para-surgical) to its Chedana (incising), Lekhana (scraping) and Ropana (healing) qualities.[1] Sushruta has dedicated a whole chapter to Kshara and narrated Kshara as an Anushastra (secondary instrument), Upayantra (secondary appliance), and one of the Upakrama of Vrana (interventions for wound care).[2],[3],[4] Dalhana; the renowned commentator of Sushruta Samhita defined “Ksharana” as something that mobilizes and removes the deformed flesh, skin, tissue etc. It removes the debris from their location due to its corrosive nature (Ksharanata). Kshara possesses dominance of Katu Rasa (pungent taste) and Lavana (salt) as Anurasa (secondary taste).[5] On the basis of application, Sushruta has mentioned two types of Kshara, i.e., Pratisarniya (external application) and Paniya (internal application).[6]Pratisarniya Kshara has been further classified into three types on the basis of its potency – Mridu (mild), Madhyama (moderate) and Tikshna (strong).[7]Kshara are penetrating in nature, hot in potency, antihelminthic, vitiate Pitta and Rakta and help in the digestion of substances help in the breakdown of hard masses and perforating the tissues. Being pungent in smell and salty in taste, it has ill effect on heart, semen, Oja, hair and eyes.[8] Sushruta has mentioned three types of Pratisaraniya Kshara as per potency, but indications of these three different types are not mentioned. However, Tikshna Kshara is used for treating piles, fistula-in-ano, rectal prolapse, pilonidal sinus, infected wound, and some types of skin disease, whereas Mridu Kshara is used in the preparation of Ksharasutra, for local application in hypergranulated or fresh wounds and for internal use in diseases such as renal calculi, asthma and diseases of alimentary canal.[9],[10],[11]Mridu and Tikshna Kshara are traditionally used in different conditions, and their effect on body tissue varies as observed clinically. This study aims to compare between the types of Apamarga Kshara (Mridu and Tikshna) on the basis of their pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical evaluation.


   Materials and Methods Top


Preparation of Mridu Apamarga Kshara and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara

Apamarga Panchanga (whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.) and Chitrakamoola (root of Plumbago zeylenica Linn.) were procured from the pharmacy of Gujarat Ayurved University. Authentication of both the samples was done on the basis of macro- and micro-morphological characteristics at Pharmacognosy laboratory, IPGT and RA, Jamnagar, Gujarat [Figure 1]. The dried Apamarga Panchanga was burnt along with crude lime stone, and the ash was collected. The ash was weighed and transferred to a clean vessel [Figure 2] and dissolved in water in 1:6 proportion; the mixture was mixed well and then allowed to settle down for 24 h. After 24 h, the solution was filtered 21 times, and a soapy, viscous, red-tinted liquid (Ksharajala) was obtained. This liquid was subjected to mild continuous heating with intermittent stirring [Figure 2].[12] For the preparation of MAK, Ksharajala was further boiled till water evaporated completely and a white powder (MAK) was obtained [Figure 2].[13]
Figure 1: Raw drug authentication (a) Whole plant of Apamarga (b) Crystal of Apamarga (c) Warty trichomes of Apamarga (d) Chitrakamoola powder (e). Prismatic crystal of Chitrakamoola (f) Tannin contain of Chitrakamoola

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Figure 2: Preparation of Mridu and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara (a) Apamaraga Panchanga (whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.) (b) Ash of Apamarga Panchanga (c) Solution of ash in six times of water (d) Kshara-Jala (e) Mridu Apamarga Kshara (f) Red-hot Kapardika (CaCO3) (g) Quenching of red-hot Kapardika inKshara-Jala (h) Chitrakamoola (root of Plumbago zeylenica) paste (i) Mixing of Chitrakamoola paste with Kshara-Jala (with Kapardika) (j) Tikshna Apamarga Kshara

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For the preparation of TAK, some quantity of Ksharajala was taken and red-hot Kapardika (1/10 part of ash) was quenched in it. This solution was filtered and mixed with rest of the Ksharajala, and then paste of root of Chitraka (1/100 part of ash) was added and heated with intermittent stirring, from which a reddish semi-solid substance (TAK) was obtained [Figure 2].[14]

Organoleptic evaluation

Organoleptic characteristics such as color, odor, taste and touch were noted down by sensory observations for both the Kshara (MAK and TAK).

Pharmacognostical evaluation

Pharmacognostical study was carried out in two phases. First, the microscopy of raw drugs and then the final products, i.e., MAK and TAK was done for standardization purpose at the Pharmacognosy laboratory, IPGT and RA, Jamnagar, as per the standard procedure. The drug was placed on a slide and distilled water was added to observe the specific characteristics of drugs. Microphotographs were taken with the help of Carl Zeiss trinocular microscope attached to the camera.[15],[16]

Pharmaceutical analysis

Physicochemical parameters

Preliminary physicochemical parameters such as loss on drying (LOD) at 110°C, ash value, acid-insoluble ash and pH value were analyzed as per the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API).[17]

Estimation of sodium and potassium ions

Estimation of sodium and potassium ions was done by flame photometer at the Analytical Laboratory, IPGT and RA, Jamnagar.[18]

Estimation of calcium and iron

Estimation of calcium and iron was carried out by standard protocol at the Analytical Laboratory of IPGT and RA, Jamnagar.[19]


   Observations and Results Top


Organoleptic characteristics

Comparison of organoleptic characteristics of prepared MAK and TAK such as color, odor, taste, touch and sound was done and the values were noted down and the results are depicted in [Table 1].
Table 1: Organoleptic characteristics of Mridu and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara

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Pharmacognostical observation

Raw powder of Apamarga Panchanga and Chitrakamoola was taken for microscopy and microphotographs were taken. Apamarga Panchanga comprised of stellate, warty and simple trichomes, cluster, prismatic and rod-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate. Chitrakamoola powder comprised of simple fibers, tannin contents and rosette crystals [Figure 1].

Fresh samples of MAK and TAK were taken for detailed quantitative micrometric study. Both the samples showed different types and number of crystals. The results of micrometric evaluations of MAK and TAK are depicted in [Table 2] and [Figure 3], [Figure 4].
Table 2: Micrometric measurement of Mridu and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara

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Figure 3: Micrometry of Mridu Apamarga Kshara (a) Mridu Apamarga Kshara (b) Crystal mass (c) Rectangular-shaped crystals (d) Irregular-shaped crystals (e) Square-shaped crystals (f) Quantitative analysis

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Figure 4: Micrometry of Tikshna Apamarga Kshara (a) Square Crystal (b) Rosette Crystal (c) Round-shaped pitted crystal (d). Hexagonal crystal three dimensions (e) Hexagonal with blunt angle (f) Hexagonal crystal two dimensions (g) Dumbbell-shaped and acicular crystal (h) Prismatic crystal (i) Hexagonal with sharp angle (j) Blunted elongated crystalline material (k) Fiber and vessel of Chitrakamoola (l) Quantitative analysis

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Quantitative micrometric analysis

The quantitative analysis of TAK and MAK showed the distribution and amount of crystals under the microscope, which were found to be 13/mm2 and 6/mm2, respectively.

Pharmaceutical analysis

Physicochemical parameters and ion estimation

Physicochemical parameter analysis, as well as ion estimation of both the samples, were carried out and the results are depicted in [Table 3].
Table 3: Physicochemical analysis of Mridu and Tikshna Apamarga Kshara

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   Discussion Top


Pharmacognostical study for the authentication, i.e., microscopic study, showed some distinctive characteristics of the drug such as Apamarga Panchanga comprised of stellate, warty and simple trichomes, cluster, prismatic and rod-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate and Chitrakamoola powder comprised of simple fibers, tannin contents and rosette crystals.

Apamarga Kshara Jala was prepared as per classical text and further used for preparing MAK and TAK. The finished product was white powder for MAK and reddish, semi-solid for TAK. The pharmacognostical study reveals that TAK showed certain peculiar characteristics of ingredients, i.e., fibers and vessels of Chitrakamoola and many crystals of various shapes and sizes as compared to MAK. Quantitative microscopy showed more crystals in TAK (13/mm2) than MAK (6/mm2), which may be because of further processing of Kshara Jala with Kapardika and Chitrakamoola.

The pharmaceutical analysis showed lesser value of LOD in TAK as compared to MAK. As TAK is semisolid in consistency, it has more water content as compared to MAK. pH of 5% solution of both the samples at room temperature was 10.2 and 10.65 for MAK and TAK, respectively. This result showed that TAK is more alkaline, which may be because of its processing with Kapardika and Chitrakamoola. Sodium and potassium ion concentration was higher in MAK (Na+ = 26%, K+ = 45%) as compared to TAK (Na+ =12.6%, K+ =32.5%). Calcium ion estimation was lower (2.31%) in MAK and higher (6.1%) in TAK, which might be due to the addition of Kapardika (cowry, CaCO3) in TAK.

In this study, an attempt has been made to differentiate MAK and TAK on the basis of quantitative micrometry and analytical parameters such as LOD value, pH value, and Na+, K+, and Ca2+ concentration. Sushruta has described three different Kshara on the basis of the potency which may be because of their different actions on the body tissue, which can be justified by more alkalinity of TAK over MAK. Thus, TAK can be used at places where more debridement is expected such as in hemorrhoids, fistula-in-ano, and unhealthy wounds, whereas MAK can be used at places where less debridement is present as for internal administration in calculi, bronchial asthma, gastrointestinal tract disorders, etc. TAK can be used in wound care as it has more calcium ion concentration, as some research studies report that calcium ion promotes wound healing in an early stage.[20]


   Conclusion Top


In this study, first attempt has been made to generate the analytical profile and to differentiate two types of Apamarga Kshara (Mridu and Tikshna) on the basis of pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical evaluation. The findings can be further used for the standardization purpose of Tikshna Kshara which may enrich the API. The limitation of this study is that the Kshara of Apamarga Panchanga may vary from place to place.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

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Shastri A, editor. Commentary Ayurved Tatva Sandipika on Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta. Sutra Sthana. Ch. 11. Ver. 5. 12th edition., Varanasi: Chowkhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2001. p. 45.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Shastri A, editor. Commentary Ayurved Tatva Sandipika on Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta. Sutra Sthana. Ch. 11. Ver. 6. 12th edition., Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2001. p. 46.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Dudhamal TS, Gupta SK, Bhuyan C, Singh K. The role of Apamarga Kshara in the treatment of Arsha. Ayu 2010;31:232-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
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Mizumoto T. Effects of the calcium ion on the wound healing process. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi 1987;62:332-45.  Back to cited text no. 20
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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