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PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 29-33  

Pharmaceutico-analytical study of Samaguna, Dwiguna and Shadguna Balijarita Rasa Sindura


Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, JSS Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication3-Dec-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. N M Harsha
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, JSS Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ayu.AYU_110_16

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   Abstract 


Introduction: Rasa Sindura is a Kupipakva Rasayana which is very popular and is widely used in therapeutics till date. Therapeutic property of Rasa Sindura varies with proportion of Gandhaka added to Parada. Aims and Objective: The present study was carried out to reevaluate and compare differences in the pharmaceutical analytical study of Rasa Sindura prepared with the changing proportion of Gandhaka. To prepare Samaguna (RS), Dwiguna (2RS) and Shadguna (6RS) Balijarita Rasa Sindura and to carry out X-ray diffraction study (XRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the samples. Material and Methods: Samaguna, Dwiguna and Shadguna Balijarita Rasa Sindura were prepared as per classical reference and the samples were subjected to XRD and FTIR. Results: The duration of trituration for the preparation of Samaguna, Dwiguna and Shadguna Kajjali was 70, 40 and 24 h respectively. The duration of heating was 16, 16 and 19 h respectively. Average percentage yield of RS, 2RS and 6RS was 54%, 34.44% and 11.35%, respectively XRD showed increased crystallinity of the samples. FTIR spectrum revealed the decrease of unsaturated carbon and exchangeable proton as the proportion of sulfur increased in the preparation. Conclusion: XRD and FTIR suggested better stability of the crystals of 6RS than 2RS and RS.

Keywords: Balijarana, Kupipakva Rasayana, Rasa Sindura


How to cite this article:
Hrishikesh P, Harsha N M. Pharmaceutico-analytical study of Samaguna, Dwiguna and Shadguna Balijarita Rasa Sindura. AYU 2018;39:29-33

How to cite this URL:
Hrishikesh P, Harsha N M. Pharmaceutico-analytical study of Samaguna, Dwiguna and Shadguna Balijarita Rasa Sindura. AYU [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Dec 18];39:29-33. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2018/39/1/29/246793




   Introduction Top


Kupipakva Rasayana are unique pharmaceutical procedures in the field of Rasashastra wherein mercury along with other minerals, metals are sublimed by subjecting it to a gradual increase in temperature for a specified time. Kupipakva Rasayana are more potent and quick acting even in a smaller dose.

Rasa Sindura is a Kupipakva Rasayana which is very popular and is widely used in therapeutics till date. It is prepared by heating Kajjali filled in a glass bottle wrapped with multiple layers of cloth smeared with mud, in a sand bath through Valuka Yantra for the specific time period.[1] Its indication ranges from simple ailments such as Ajirna and Aruchi to chronic ailments such as Kushtha, Rajayakshma and Prameha with disease-specific Anupana.[2] Hence, it is widely used in other formulations.

Therapeutic property of Rasa Sindura varies with the proportion of Gandhaka (sulfur) added to that of Parada (mercury) and also the duration of Gandhaka Jarana. It is claimed in the text that more the quantity of Gandhaka added, more is the potency.[3] However, according to law of definite proportion, eight parts of mercury combines with one part of sulfur. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the structural changes in Rasa Sindura prepared with different proportion of sulfur.

Hence, the present study was carried out to provide scientific analytical basis in support of the above concept of variation in therapeutic property of Rasa Sindura prepared with change in the proportion of Gandhaka.

Aims and objectives

This study aims to re-evaluate and compare differences in the pharmaceutical analytical study of Rasa Sindura prepared with the changing proportion of Gandhaka. (1)To prepare Samaguna Balijarita Rasa Sindura (RS), Dwiguna Balijarita Rasa Sindura (2RS), (2) To prepare Shadguna Balijarita Rasa Sindura (6RS) and to carry out X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) study of the samples.


   Materials and Methods Top


Preparation of Samaguna, Dwiguna and Shadguna Balijarita Rasa Sindura

Parada and Gandhaka were obtained from local market. Vatankura and Kumari were procured from herbal garden of JSSAMC and Rakta Karpasa Pushpa was procured from Krishi Vigyana Kendra, Bellary. Raw materials were used for the preparation after assessing its genuinity. Parada Shodhana (detoxification of mercury) was carried out by levigating it with equal quantity of Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.)powder and sufficient quantity of fresh juice of Kumari (Aloe barbadensis) in a Khalva Yantra (mortar and pestle) till it turns to a homogeneous mixture. Later on Chakrikas (flakes) were prepared and dried. Flakes were subjected to Urdhvapatana (sublimation) in Urdhvapatana-Yantra for 6 h by giving Kramagni (sequential heat pattern) namely 2 h of mild heat, 2 h of moderate heat and 2 h of intense heat. Later on, the apparatus was allowed for self-cooling. Parada which was adhered to the upper pot was collected, washed thoroughly with hot water, filtered through cloth, dried and was stored.[4]

Gandhaka Shodhana (detoxification of sulfur) was done using Bhudhara Yantra wherein a pot was half filled with milk and was buried in the ground up to its neck. A cloth was tied over the mouth of the pot and Gandhaka was spread over the cloth. An iron griddle was placed inverted over it on which 8–10 cow dung cakes were placed and ignited.[5] After self-cooling, Shuddha Gandhaka in beads shape was found at the bottom of the pot which was washed thoroughly with hot water and dried. Lateron it was powdered and stored.

Thus Shodhita Parada and Gandhaka (processed mercury and sulfur) were used to prepare Samaguna, Dwiguna and Shadguna Kajjali as per classical reference which were later used to prepare respective Rasa Sindura.[6],[7],[8]

Preparation of Rasa Sindura

It can be classified under the following three headings:

Preparatory phase

An amber-colored glass bottle was taken and washed thoroughly with hot water and dried. A cloth smeared with Multani Mitti (Fuller's earth) was folded into four folds and pasted to the bottom of the bottle. The bottle was covered with seven layers of cloth smeared with Multani Mitti and dried. Kajjali was given Bhavana (levigation) with Vatankura Swarasa, Rakta Karpasa Pushpa Swarasa and Kumari swarasa for Samaguna, Dwiguna and Shadguna Kajjali respectively, dried, powdered, filled in the bottle and was placed in Valuka Yantra.

Main pharmaceutical operation

The fire was ignited and light heat was given till the appearance of white fumes. Later on mild heatwas given till the stage of corking. Bottle was corked with the help of Gopichandana covered with cloth smeared with Multani Mitti after Sheeta shalaka test and copper coin test was found positive. Sand surrounding the neck of the bottlewas removed and Teevragni (high heat) was given for about 2 h. later on, the addition of fuel was stopped. After complete self cooling to room temperature the Kupi was removed from the Valuka Yantra.

Post pharmaceutical operation

Covering of the bottle was scraped out, and the bottle was cleaned from outside. Thread dipped in mineral oil was tied around the bottle below the level of deposition of Rasa Sindura collected and was ignited. After the thread was burnt, a wet cloth was wrapped around the bottle and pressed to break open the bottle. Later, Rasa Sindura was carefully collected such that it was devoid of glass pieces.

Analytical study

X-ray diffraction study

Samples RS, 2RS, and 6RS were subjected to XRD study using BRUKER-binary V2 Advance X-ray diffractometer and was equipped with Cu K α (λ-1.5 406) radiation operated at 40KV/30mA. The sample was well grounded to 200 mesh and air dried. The X-ray diffractometer scans were made on randomly oriented samples form 5–100 2θ with a step size of 0.0190 and 64.7053 s time per step. The 2-theta value and intensity of the peak (counts) are represented on X and Y-axes, respectively. Higher the value of counts represents higher the crystallinity of the phase. For identification of each phase, strong peaks were chosen and compared with standard X-ray Powder Diffraction file (XPDF). XRD pattern of the three samples was compared with each other and data were analyzed using X-pert high score plus.

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

The analysis of the samples was done using Agilent Carry 660 with ATR range 400–4000.

Observations

Parada Shodhana

It was found difficult to triturate Parada and Haridra powder because of mobility of Parada. However, after adding Kumari juice, it became core easy as the Parada began to disintegrate more rapidly.

Gandhaka Shodhana

Particles were found floating over the layer of milk. In one of the trial, it was found that the Gandhaka was present over the cloth even after heating. This was because the cloth was thick and contained starch. Hence, the molten Gandhaka could not pass through the pores of the cloth.

Preparation of Kajjali

  • As the ratio of Gandhaka added to that of Parada increased, the duration for preparation of Kajjali decreased [Table 1]
  • Globules of mercury disintegrated more rapidly in the presence of a higher proportion of sulfur.
Table 1: Duration of Kajjali preparation

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Preparation of Rasa sindura

Observations during preparation of RS, 2RS and 6RS have been tabulated in [Table 2]. Temperature graph is shown in [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3] respectively. As the proportion of Sulfur increased the height of the flame also increased [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6].
Table 2: Comparative observation during preparation of Samaguna Rasa Sindura, Dwiguna Rasa Sindura and Shadguna Rasa Sindura

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Figure 1: Temperature graph of Samaguna Rasa Sindura

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Figure 2: Temperature graph of Dwiguna Rasa Sindura

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Figure 3: Temperature graph of Shadguna Rasa Sindura

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Figure 4: Flame during Preparation of Samaguna Rasa Sindura

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Figure 5: Flame during preparation of Dwiguna Rasa Sindura

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Figure 6: Flame during preparation of Shadguna Rasa Sindura

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   Results Top


Pharmaceutical study

Results of preparation of RS, 2RS and 6RS have been tabulated in [Table 3].
Table 3: Results of Samaguna Rasa Sindura, Dwiguna Rasa Sindura and Shadguna Rasa Sindura prepared in two batches

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Analytical study

XRD pattern of all the three samples [Figure 7] showed peaks only due to mercuric sulfide. It has an empirical formula of HgS. The particle size of the samples was calculated using Scherer's Equation Dp = 0.94λ/β½ cos θ, where Dp is the crystal size, λ is the source wavelength, β½ is the peak FWHM, θ is the peak position and is tabulated. There was no change in the crystal structure of the three samples as the peak position was the same in XRD pattern of all the three samples. The intensity of peak increased with increase in the proportion of sulfur which implies higher crystallinity.
Figure 7: XRD pattern of Samaguna, Dwiguna, and Shadguna Rasa Sindura

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FTIR spectrum of sample RS, 2RS and 6RS [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10] has 8, 5 and 3 peaks denoting different functional groups, respectively. The number of peaks denoting the presence of unsaturated carbon are 6, 7 and 4 in sample RS, 2RS and 6RS, respectively and peaks denoting the presence of exchangeable proton are 3, 2 and 2 respectively [Table 4].
Figure 8: Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy of Samaguna Rasa Sindura

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Figure 9: Fourier-Transform Infra-red spectroscopy of Dwiguna Rasa Sindura

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Figure 10: Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy of Shadguna Rasa Sindura

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Table 4: Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy results

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   Discussion Top


Mercury has a great affinity to the sulfhydryls or thiols. The mercury atom or molecule will tend to bind with any molecule present that has sulfur or a sulfur-hydrogen combination in its structure. Hence, globules of Parada molecules disintegrated rapidly in sulfur during the preparation of Kajjali.

The duration of fumes and flames increased with the increase in the proportion of sulfur added. The amount of Kajjali taken was varied as a precautionary measure to avoid spillage of Kajjali during the heating process. Hence, the exact increase in the duration of fumes and flame could not be noted. However, the increase in sulfur odor and size of the flame was observed.

The previous work done on similar concept of increased potency of Rasa Sindura with increased proportion of sulfur showed slight variations in quantitative analysis but nothing conclusive on therapeutic efficacy.[9] Hence, in the present study, quantitative analysis was not carried out.

XPD pattern lack in unique suggests compounds like our Rasoaushadhi is. Hence, we can just compare our sample with standard one, but precise identification cannot be made. No change in the crystal structure because there is no change in the position of the peaks. Since the atomic number of mercury is 80 and atomic number of sulfur is 16 and due to the addition of sulfur concentration, there is a possibility that sulfur atom can occupy the interstitial sites of mercury. Thus there is a minute change in peak positions due to strain generation. It is also noticed that the intensity of peaks increased with increase in the sulfur concentration which indicates higher crystallinity and stability. Although RS, 2RS and 6RS were identified as cinnabar; there was the difference in D space and intensity which implies definitely there is some difference in the crystallinity.

Through FTIR, it was found that as the proportion of Gandhaka to that of Parada increased in the preparation of Rasa Sindura, the number of functional groups were decreased. The presence of functional group is very much essential in drug absorption as it increases the rate of absorption. However, at the same time, the presence of multiple functional groups may hinder drug absorption as they hinder the action of other functional groups. Hence, it may be postulated that 6RS has better absorption compared to 2RS and RS. FTIR showed the presence of more unsaturated Carbon and exchangeable proton in RS than 2RS and was least in 6RS. This might result in more stability of 6RS compared to 2RS and RS. Although FTIR showed the presence of the functional group, considering the amount and duration of heat given during preparation, the functional group will be disintegrated, hence their significance is unknown.


   Conclusion Top


Advanced analytical techniques can be useful for the characterization of Rasa preparations, but they fail to give information regarding its pharmacodynamics. The concept of increased potency of Kupipakva Rasayana with the increase in the proportion of Gandhaka added could not be proved analytically in spite of using the modern, sophisticated instruments though it has been proved clinically.

Financial support and sponsorship

Self.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Sadananda SS, Kashinath S, editors. Rasa Tarangini. 11th ed., Ch. 6, Ver. 162-167. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2004. p. 135.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sadananda SS, Kashinath S, editors. Rasa Tarangini. 11th ed., Ch. 6, Ver. 203-234, 143-145. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2004. p. 143-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Madhavaacharya S, Mishra G, editors. Ayurveda Prakasha. 1st ed., Ch. 1, Ver. 118-122. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharathi Academy; 1999. p. 71.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Gopala Krishna BS, Parimi S, Dharmapuneni VK, editors. Rasendra Sara Sangraha. 1st ed., Ch. 1, Ver. 28. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharathi Academy; 1999. p. 11.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Gopala Krishna BS, Parimi S, Dharmapuneni VK, editors. Rasendra Sara Sangraha. 1st ed., Ch. 2, Ver. 120-124. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharathi Academy; 1999. p. 44.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Gopala Krishna BS, Parimi S, Dharmapuneni VK, editors. Rasendra Sara Sangraha. 1st ed., Ch. 1, Ver. 65-67. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharathi Academy; 1999. p. 28-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sadananda SS, Kashinath S, editors. Rasa Tarangini. 11th ed., Ch. 6, Ver. 186. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2004. p. 139.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sadananda SS, Kashinath S, editors. Rasa Tarangini. 11th ed., Ch. 6, Ver. 189. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2004. p. 140.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Revathi HG. A Comparative Phatmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna & Triguna Balijarita Rasa Sindoora. Bangalore: Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Science; 2009. p. 125-30.  Back to cited text no. 9
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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