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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 36  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 225-229  

X-Ray Diffraction of different samples of Swarna Makshika Bhasma


1 Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Prasooti Tantra, Government Ayurvedic College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication3-Feb-2016

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ramesh Kumar Gupta
Lecturer, Dept. of RS and BK, Government Ayurvedic College, Varanasi - 221 002, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.175547

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   Abstract 

Introduction: Shodhana and Marana are a series of complex procedures that identify the undesirable effects of heavy metals/minerals and convert them into absorbable and assimilable forms. Study on the analytical levels is essential to evaluate the structural and chemical changes that take place during and after following such procedures as described in major classical texts to understand the mystery behind these processes. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) helps to identify and characterize minerals/metals and fix up the particular characteristics pattern of prepared Bhasma. Aim: To evaluate the chemical changes in Swarna Makshika Bhasma prepared by using different media and methods. Materials and Methods: In this study, raw Swarna Makshika, purified Swarna Makshika and four types of Swarna Makshika Bhasma prepared by using different media and methods were analyzed by XRD study. Results: XRD study of different samples revealed strongest peaks of iron oxide in Bhasma. Other phases of Cu2O, FeS2, Cu2S, FeSO4, etc., were also identified in many of the samples. Conclusion: XRD study revealed that Swarna Makshika Bhasma prepared by Kupipakwa method is better, convenient, and can save time.

Keywords:  Bhasma, Makshika, Marana, Shodhana, X-ray diffraction


How to cite this article:
Gupta RK, Lakshmi V, Jha CB. X-Ray Diffraction of different samples of Swarna Makshika Bhasma. AYU 2015;36:225-9

How to cite this URL:
Gupta RK, Lakshmi V, Jha CB. X-Ray Diffraction of different samples of Swarna Makshika Bhasma. AYU [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Sep 22];36:225-9. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2015/36/2/225/175547


   Introduction Top


Ayurveda and other traditional medicines mainly depend on herbal, herbo-mineral formulations; have to change their track and method of approach to convince the scientific world. Some recent criticism from the West against the metallic preparations has created uproar from the Ayurvedic fraternity globally. An analytical study is one of the vital parts for drug standardization in traditional systems of medicine helps to interpret the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Ayurvedic drugs.

Physico-chemical analysis provides objective parameters to fix up the standards for quality of raw drugs as well as finished products. Since Rasa Shastra has physics and chemistry as its close ally, there is scope to seek laws of chemistry and physics for providing a relationship for changes that take place in the pharmaceutical process.[1] In depth knowledge of imaging techniques and familiarity with the fundamental properties of matter are providing invaluable support for mapping the structure and function of drugs at all levels. Recent advances in data gathering techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis provide an unprecedented view of the structure as well as cell function of the drug at the molecular and atomic level. These techniques are used in Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industries to characterize the raw material and final products and to establish this ancient science on modern scientific parameters. Hence, these tests can be put parallel to Ayurvedic Bhasma Pariksha (test) for ensuring genuine Bhasma production. Considering this, an effort has been made to analyze the raw Swarna Makshika, purified Swarna Makshika and four samples of Swarna Makshika Bhasma through XRD study. Prior to subjecting the material to XRD study, attempts were made to examine the Bhasma through classical parameters of analysis. In this study, emphasis has been given to find out the chemical changes takes place in Swarna Makshika Bhasma prepared by different methods by following X-Ray Diffraction.


   Materials and Methods Top


Materials and methods used in different samples of Swarna Makshika Bhasma preparations are based on availability, descriptions in Rasa Shastra classics, traditional values, and expert opinion. Raw Makshika is procured from the Ayurvedic Pharmacy of IMS, BHU. The raw drug is identified on the basis of its Grahya Lakshanas (acceptable characters) as mentioned in Rasa literatures,[2],[3] and experts opinion.

Shodhana

Raw Swarna Makshika was taken in a clean and dry Khalva Yantra (mortar), pounded well to prepare fine powder, shifted to a clean and dry iron pan and subjected to intense heat at about a temperature of 750–900°C. The iron pan was then closed with an iron lid to avoid loss of material due to dusting. This process was continued for 3 days after complete cessation of sulfur fumes and until the mixture became red like fire.[4]

Marana

Four samples of Swarna Makshika Bhasma were prepared by following classical guidelines as described in Ayurveda classics.

Sample 1

Shodhita Swarna Makshika was triturated with lemon juice, and Chakrika (pellets) were made. Properly dried and weighed Chakrikas were arranged in a Sharava, closed by another Sharava and sealed by cloth smeared with clay. Properly sealed and dried Sharava Samputa was subjected to Puta system of heating. Twelve numbers of Puta were required to produce genuine Bhasma.[5]

Sample 2

Shodhita Swarna Makshika was mixed with equal amount of Shodhita Gandhaka and triturated with lemon juice; pellets were made and subjected to Puta system of heating. From second Puta onwards the amount of Gandhaka was taken half of the Swarna Makshika. Total 11 Puta were required to prepare Swarna Makshika Bhasma.[6]

Sample 3

Shodhita Swarna Makshika was mixed with 1/8th part of Shodhita Hingula and triturated with lemon juice; pellets were made and subjected to Puta system of heating. Total 09 Puta were required to prepare Swarna Makshika Bhasma.[7]

Sample 4

Shodhita Swarna Makshika was added with Kajjali and triturated with lemon juice till the material became homogenous and dried. The mixture was subjected for Kupipaka for 10 h. After breaking the Kupi, prepared Swarna Makshika Bhasma was collected from the bottom and Rasa Sindura was collected from the neck. Material collected from the bottom is further subjected to 6 Putapaka to prepare Swarna Makshika Bhasma.[8]

Analysis of samples

Samples of raw Swarna Makshika, Shodhita Swarna Makshika, and four samples of Swarna Makshika Bhasma were labeled and analyzed by XRD. The graph of each sample after comparing with Joint Committee on Power Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) data is illustrated in this study.


   Observations and Results Top


XRD study revealed that the strongest peaks identified in the raw material after comparing with JCPDS data was CuFeS2 [Graph 1] and [Table 1]. After Shodhana, the three highest peaks were identified as FeS2, Fe2O3, and FeSO4. Other peaks identified in Shodhita Swarna Makshika were Cu2S and CuO [Graph 2] and [Table 2]. Many complex compounds are also formed in Shodhita Swarna Makshika, but it is very difficult to detect them. Strongest peaks identified in sample 1 [Graph 3] and [Table 3] sample 2 [Graph 4] and [Table 4] sample 3 [Graph 5] and [Table 5] of Swarna Makshika Bhasma is Fe3O4. In sample 4 of Swarna Makshika Bhasma, after Kupipaka [Graph 6] and [Table 6] the peaks of CuFeS2 again reappear and in the same sample, after Putapaka strong peaks of Fe2O3, Cu2O, and FeSO4 were identified [Graph 7] and [Table 7].

Table 1: The X-ray diffraction of raw Swarna Makshika

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Table 2: The X-ray diffraction of Shodhita Swarna Makshika

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Table 3: The X-ray diffraction of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (MB1)

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Table 4: The X-ray diffraction of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (MB2)

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Table 5: The X-ray diffraction of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (MB3)

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Table 6: The X-ray diffraction of Kupipakwa Swarna Makshika Bhasma (MB4K)

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Table 7: The X-ray diffraction of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (MB4)

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   Discussion Top


XRD of raw material reveals that the peaks obtained are corresponding to the peaks of CuFeS2 in JCPDS file and hence the material is identified as copper pyrite. The strongest peak identified in Shodhita material (SM) was FeS2. Other strong phases identified were Cu2S, Fe3O4, FeSO4, and SiO2. The strongest peak identified in sample MB1 was Fe3O4. In this sample, second and third strong peaks were identified as Fe3O4 and FeSO4. The strongest peak identified in sample MB2 was Fe3O4. Other strong peaks in MB2 were identified as CuS and FeSO4. Highest peak identified in MB3 was Fe3O4. Other peaks identified in the sample were Cu2O, FeSO4, and Fe2O3. In partially prepared Swarna Makshika Bhasma (MBK4) most of the highest peaks were identified as CuFeS2. Regain of CuFeS2 after Kupipaka was very surprising. As we know, SM contains mainly FeS2, Cu2S, Fe3O4, and FeSO4. During Kupipaka, excess sulfur gets evaporated in the form of oxides of sulfur. Some of the sulfur reacted with mercury and converted into Rasa Sindura and some part of sulfur still remain un-reacted in the bottom of the bottle. On a specific temperature and conditions, this unreacted sulfur may react with copper and iron and get converted into copper pyrite. After further Putapaka of partially prepared Swarna Makshika Bhasma, highest peaks identified were Fe2O3, Cu2O, and FeSO4. Hence, many small peaks are seen in all samples, but these small peaks are very difficult to identify. According to the diffraction principle, small peaks are quantitatively very poor. On XRD report of the Bhasma, it can be assumed that the small peaks observed may be the trace elements or their compounds that may possibly incorporate into the prepared Bhasma due to repeated Bhavana (levigation) with herbal juices and firing in presence of oxygen and sulfur.


   Conclusion Top


Particular benefit of diffraction analysis is that it discloses the presence of substances as that actually exists in the sample. This technique helps to identify and characterize the Ayurvedic raw material of mineral/metal origin and their processed form. XRD of different samples of Swarna Makshika Bhasma after comparing with JCPDS data revealed that raw Swarna Makshika contains CuFeS2, which was converted into sulfides of copper and iron and oxide and sulfate of iron after Shodhana. Major compounds identified in Bhasma of different samples were Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, FeSO4, and Cu2S. In Bhasma prepared by Kupipaka followed by Putapaka, Strongest peak of Fe2O3, Cu2O and FeSO4 were mainly identified.

Financial support and sponsorship

Faculty of Ayurveda, Institue of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
   References Top

1.
X-ray Crystallography. From Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Available from: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/. [Last cited on 2014 Sep 08].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Shastri K, editor. Rasa Taranginiof Sadananda Sharma, Ch. 21, Ver. 4. 11th ed. Varanasi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2004. p. 520.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sharma G, commentator. Ayurveda Prakasha of Madhava Upadhyaya, Ch. 4, Ver. 7-8. Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Acadamy; 2007. p. 410.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Shastri K, editor. Rasa Tarangini of Sadananda Sharma, Ch. 21, Ver. 7-11. 11th ed. Varanasi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2004. p. 521.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Shastri K, editor. Rasa Tarangini of Sadananda Sharma, Ch. 21, Ver. 19-20. 11th ed. Varanasi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2004. p. 523.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Shastri K, editor. Rasa Tarangini of Sadananda Sharma, Ch. 21, Ver. 21-22. 11th ed. Varanasi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2004. p. 523.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Shastri K, editor. Rasa Tarangini of Sadananda Sharma, Ch. 21, Ver. 23-24. 11th ed. Varanasi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2004. p. 524.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Acharya SS. Rasayana Sara. 5th ed. Varanasi: Shyam Sundar Rasayan Shala Publication; 1971. p. 286-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

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