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PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 36  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 73-76  

Pharmacognostical and preliminary physico-chemical profiles of Blepharispermum subsessile DC. root


1 Department of Dravyaguna, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
3 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
4 Department of Kayachikitsa, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication4-Nov-2015

Correspondence Address:
Rabinarayan Acharya
Department of Dravyaguna, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.169012

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   Abstract 

Introduction: Blepharispermum subsessile DC. is a folklore medicinal herb, found in Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. It is locally known as Rasnajhadi in Odisha and its roots are being used as Rasna in treating rheumatic, gynecological, nervous disorders. In spite of its high medicinal as well as market values, the pharmacognostical characters of its root is not reported till date. Aim: To evaluate pharmacognostical and preliminary physico-chemical profiles of B. subsessile root. Materials and Methods: Roots of B. subsessile were collected from Odisha; its macroscopic, microscopic, powder characters and preliminary physico-chemical characters were studied following standard procedures. Results: Microscopically, outer multilayered lignified cork cells, cortex, border pitted xylem vessels, tracheids, isolated or groups of thick-walled xylem fibees were seen. Physico-chemical parameters showed that water soluble extractive value (31.3%) is more than alcohol soluble extractive value (23.2%) and 5.5 pH value, etc. Conclusion: The findings of the study will be useful in the identification and standardization of the B. subsessile root.

Keywords: Asteraceae, Blepharispermum subsessile DC., ethnomedicine, pharmacognosy, Rasna, root


How to cite this article:
Jadhav A, Acharya R, Harisha C R, Shukla VJ, Chandola H. Pharmacognostical and preliminary physico-chemical profiles of Blepharispermum subsessile DC. root. AYU 2015;36:73-6

How to cite this URL:
Jadhav A, Acharya R, Harisha C R, Shukla VJ, Chandola H. Pharmacognostical and preliminary physico-chemical profiles of Blepharispermum subsessile DC. root. AYU [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Jun 3];36:73-6. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2015/36/1/73/169012


   Introduction Top


India has rich floristic and ethnic diversity. Blepharispermum subsessile DC., an extra pharmacopeial folklore medicinal plant, is a "Healing herb," known and marketed as Rasnajhadi in Odisha, is more frequent in the forests, north of Indravati river of Bastar District, distributed in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Odisha. An ethno botanical study reports the uses of its root in the management of various diseases. Socio-religious customs of Bastar region, i.e. Raj Gondas, Murias, Bhatra, uses decoction of Rasnajhadi, on 3rd day of menstruation and after delivery.[1] Decoction as well as powder of root is used in nervous disorders,[2] whole plant is used in Krimiroga (worms), Atisara (diarrhea) and Udarshula (stomach-ache),[3] rheumatic affections,[4],[5] diarrhea,[6] skin diseases,[7] eye troubles, back ache due to rheumatism,[8] and irregular menstruation.[9] The pharmacognostical characters of its leaf [10] and stem [11] have been reported. In spite of its high medicinal as well as market value, the pharmacognostical characters of its root is not reported till date. Hence, the present study planned to evaluate pharmacognostical profiles of its root, which includes macroscopic, microscopic characters, and preliminary physico-chemical analysis.


   Materials and Methods Top


Collection and authentification

Rasnajhadi, growing in Gurudongmar medicinal plants conservation area of Nuapada district of Odisha, India, was identified as B. subsessile DC. belonging to Asteraceae family on the basis of its morphological characters, comparing with the reported characters mentioned in Flora of Orissa,[12] and with the help of local taxonomist. The fresh plant sample was collected from its natural habitat during October 2011 and has been preserved with voucher specimen (no. 37325) in pharmacognosy laboratory. The collected plant samples were shaken to remove adherent soil and dirt. The roots were separated from the stem, washed under running fresh water. Few pieces were stored in the solution of alcohol: acetic acid: formalin in the ratio of (90:5:5)[13] to utilize them for microscopic studies. Remaining roots were washed, shade dried, powdered, passed through mesh no. 80, and preserved in an air-tight glass container and utilized for powder microscopy and preliminary physico-chemical analysis.

Pharmacognostic studies

Morphological characters were studied by observing the root as such and with the help of dissecting microscope. For detailed microscopical observation, free-hand thin transverse sections (TS) were taken, cleared with chloral hydrate, and observed for the presence of any crystals. Then, these sections were stained with phloroglucinol and conc. hydrochloric acid to notice lignified elements such as fibres and vessels.[14] Photographs of the sections were taken with the help of Canon digital camera attached to Carl Zeiss trinocular microscope. Powder characters were observed with above mentioned methods.

Physico-chemical evaluation

The dried sample of the root was used for the preliminary physico-chemical investigations by the standard procedure adopted from Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API).[15]


   Results and Discussion Top


Macroscopic examination

Drug consist of cylindrical unbranched straight or slightly bent or tortuous pieces of roots, 2.5–5.5 cm in length and 0.3–0.5 cm in diameter, longitudinally ridged, wrinkled and fissured, show few transversely running lenticels, transversely cracked at places exfoliated exhibiting the inner narrow yellow wood. Fracture is short, externally earthy brown in color, internally yellowish. Some pieces show the crown with cluster of aerial stem arising from its upper surface and roots from the lower surface [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Blepharispermum subsessile plant in natural habitat and roots

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Microscopic examination

Diagrammatic TS of the root is circular in outline with irregular margins, show outer cork, cortex and phloem, xylem abruptly interpreted with phloem, and makes second layer of xylem towards the center.

Detailed TS shows, outermost cork cells which are dark brown, suberized, compressed, and running irregularly; middle cork cells lying underneath, these are lignified, 3–4 layered, and square; innermost cork cells consist of narrow suberized cells which are compressed and running tangentially. Cortex is narrow, parenchymatous, and embedded at places with simple starch grains. Phloem consisting of 7–10 rows, consisting of phloem parenchyma, sieve tubes and companion cells, traversed with isolated lignified thin walled stone cells, and oil cells embedded with yellowish brown coloring matter. At places, phloem penetrates inside the xylem and embedded with isolated thick-walled fibres. Xylem is wide consisting of xylem vessels, which are isolated or in group, medullary rays are multiseriate, getting wider at places, and occasionally shows cleft in them. Patches of interxylary phloem and intervascular pits are traversing throughout the xylem and are embedded with isolated fibres. Inner toward the center, band of xylem forming ring along with parenchyma and some fibers followed by band of phloem leads into anomalous growth, leaving centrally some parenchyma cells heavily filled with tannin material [Figure 2] and [Figure 3].
Figure 2: Transverse section of root, (a) ck: Cork, cx: Cortex, t: Tannin, oxy: Outer xylum, ixp: Interxylary phloem, cxy: Central xylem with fibres; (b) ck: Cork, pf: Pericyclic fibres, ph: Phloem, mr: Medullary rays

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Figure 3: Transverse section in enlarged view (a) cork in surface view, (b) central xylem with xylem and phloem, (c) xylem with parenchyma and fibres, (d) tannin-containing cells

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Powder microscopy

Organoleptic characters of powder show brownish black color, aromatic odor, oily and bitter taste, and rough touch.

The diagnostic characters of B. subsessile root powder shows, multilayered lignified cork cells in surface view, cork in transversely cut view, phloem parenchymatous cells embedded with fibres, longitudinally cut fragments of border pitted xylem vessels and tracheids, radially cut medullary rays crossing the xylem vessels, tracheids and isolated or groups of thick-walled xylem fibers, prismatic crystals, and tannin content [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Powder microscopic characters of root (a) cork in surface view, (b) border pitted xylem vessel, (c) tannin, (d) pitted sclereids, (e) prismatic crystal, (f) coloring matter

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Preliminary physico-chemical analysis

Physico-chemical parameters of B. subsessile root showed total ash (4.05%), acid insoluble ash (0.5%), water soluble extractive value (31.3%) more than alcohol soluble extractive value (23.2%), and acidic pH 5.5 [Table 1].
Table 1: Preliminary physico-chemical analysis of Blepharispermum subsessile root

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   Conclusion Top


Diagnostic characters of root of B. subsessile DC. showed outer multilayered lignified cork cells, xylem abruptly interpreted with phloem, interxylary phloem, border pitted xylem vessels, intervascular pits, multiseriate medullary rays, tracheids, prismatic crystals, and tannin. The results of pharmacognostical and physico-chemical parameters can be considered as reference standards in the further studies.

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to Mr. B. N. Hota, Rtd. DFO, Govt. of Odisha; Mr. Pareswar Sahoo, Pharmacognosy expert, SSN Ayurved College, Paikmal; Dhala Bhai, Plant Collector; Mr. Malaya Das, Forest Range Officer, Govt. of Odisha and other traditional healer who helped us during drug collection at Nuapada and Gandhamardan Hills, Bargarh, Odisha.

Financial support and sponsorship

IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Hemadri K, Sharma RC, Rao S. Glimpses of Medico-Botany of Bastar District (M.P.). New Delhi: CCRAS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India; 1990. p. 21-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Jain SK. Medicinal plant lore of the tribals of Bastar. Econ Bot 1965;19:236-50.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hemadri K, Sharma RC, Rao S. Glimpses of Medico-Botany of Bastar District (M.P.). New Delhi: CCRAS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India; 1990. p. 100, 121.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants. 1st ed. New Delhi: Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd.; 2007. p. 94.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hemadri K, Sharma PC, Narayaanaappa D, Rao SS, Murthy KS. Medico-Botanical Exploration of Phulabani and Koraput Districts of Orissa. Folklore Claims. New Delhi: CCRAS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India; 1996. p. 115.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Dash SK, Padhy S. Review on ethnomedicines for diarrhoea diseases from Orissa: Prevalence versus culture. J Hum Ecol 2006;20:59-64.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Arunachalam S. Science on the Periphery Enriches Mainstream Science, but at What Cost? The Case of Ethnobotany. Vol. 6. Karai Kudi (India): Central Electrochemical Research Institute; 1996. p. 42.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Prusti AB, Behera KK. Ethno-medico botanical study of Sundargarh District, Orissa, India. Ethnobotanical Leafl 2007;11:148-63.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Shukla R, Chakravarty M, Gautam MP. Indigenous medicine used for treatment of gynecological disorders by tribal of Chhattisgarh, India. J Med Plants Res 2008;2:356-60.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Jadav A, Acharya RN, Chandola HM, Harisha CR. Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaf of Blepharospermum subsessile DC (Asteraceae). Global J Res Med Plants and Indigen Med 2013;2:165-71.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Jadav A, Acharya RN, Chandola HM, Harisha CR. Development of Random Amplified polymorphic DNA markers for authentification of Blepharospermum subsessile DC. Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci 2013;2:41-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Saxena HO, Brahmam M. The Flora of Orissa. Vol. 2. Bhubaneswar: RRL, Orissa Forest Development Corporation Ltd.; 1990. p. 897.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Donald JA. Plant Micro Technique. 1st ed. New York, London: Maegrous-Hill Book Company; 1940. p. 105.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy: Techniques and Experiments. 19th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2008. p. 15-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-I. Appendix 2. 1st ed. New Delhi: Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 1999. p. 142-46.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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