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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 356-360  

Concept of Sukha (comfort) mentioned in Dhatusarata (tissue excellence) w.s.r. to vocational guidance


1 Department of Sharir Kriya, D. Y. Patil University School of Ayurveda, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Sanskrit Samhita Siddhant, D. Y. Patil University School of Ayurveda, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication18-Jun-2015

Correspondence Address:
Mahesh Kumar Harit
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.158977

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   Abstract 

Agni (digestive fire), Prakruti (constitution), Dhatusarata (tissue excellence), Dosha (bio-energies) are the specialties of Ayurveda on which diagnosis, treatment and research are based. The description of Dhatusarata (tissue excellence) has been given under Dashavidha Pariksha (tenfold examination) in Charak Samhita, Viman Sthana, 8 th chapter. Some qualities, which are mentioned in Dhatusarata are difficult to assess, e.g. Sukha, Aishwarya, Upabhoga, Bala, etc., There is a need to develop some quantitative parameters to measure these qualities according to tissue excellence i.e. Dhatusarata. By assessing Dhatu Sarata, one can judge the true strength of a particular Dhatu but only the ability or strength is not enough to get success; the liking or interest is also essential to achieve success. The purpose of this study is to elaborate the concept of Dhatusarata and reveal different aspects of Sukha according to the quality of that particular Dhatu in context of vocational guidance. It will help to establish interrelationship between Dhatusarata and vocational guidance. It will be assessed whether this Sukha quality is merely happiness or having different shades according to the excellence of Dhatus and whether this study is useful in guiding the person to choose appropriate profession, which will be according to his liking and ability. It has been concluded that shades of Sukha quality varies with particular Dhatusaras, which may be helpful in guiding a suitable profession to an individual which will be according to his ability and liking i.e. Sukha for intimate success.

Keywords: Career guidance, Dhatusarata, happiness, Sukha, vocational guidance


How to cite this article:
Waghulade H, Harit MK. Concept of Sukha (comfort) mentioned in Dhatusarata (tissue excellence) w.s.r. to vocational guidance. AYU 2014;35:356-60

How to cite this URL:
Waghulade H, Harit MK. Concept of Sukha (comfort) mentioned in Dhatusarata (tissue excellence) w.s.r. to vocational guidance. AYU [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Feb 16];35:356-60. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2014/35/4/356/158977


   Introduction Top


Ayurved is one of the greatest gifts given by the sages of ancient India to mankind. Ayurved is designed for healthy and long life. Agni (digestive fire), Prakruti (constitution), Dhatusarata (tissue excellence), Doshas (bio energies) are the pillars of Ayurveda, which help in diagnosis, treatment and research.

Human physiology depends on balanced state of Dosha, Dhatu (tissues) and Mala (waste materials). Among these, Dhatus can be called as stabilizing pillars of the body. Well-nourished Dhatus give strength to maintain health and immunity. The strength of body and mind can be evaluated by Dhatusarata, which has been specified in Charak Samhita Viman Sthan 8 th chapter while explaining Dashavidha Pariksha (tenfold examination). Dhatusarata is qualitative, quantitative and functional assessment of Dhatus. By knowing true strength of Dhatu, an individual can choose a particular profession and achieve success.

It is difficult to assess each and every quality of Dhatusarata mentioned in Charak Samhita for, e.g. Sukha, Aishwarya, Upabhaog, Bala etc., Among these, Sukha quality is quoted in Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda and Shukra Sara. Sukha is the feeling in which a person is comfortable with. Whether this feeling of liking is same in Dhatusaras or it has a different meaning according to qualities of Dhatus should be ruled out to get successes with ease. As there is a lot of saturation in money making careers and such saturation leads to competition, individuals' have to compromise with their liking and interest. That means only ability is not enough to get success; the liking or interest is also essential to achieve success.

The present study has been taken up to understand the concept of Sukha and its shades as per different Dhatusaras. With the help of Dhatusarata and different shades of Sukha, an individual can be guided in choosing appropriate profession, according to his ability and liking to become successful in that particular profession.

This conceptual study will be helpful in various vocational guidance centers for advising career to job seekers according to their liking and ability. It will also help in assigning a particular designation to an employee based on his ability in multinational companies. One can advise a particular job profile according to one's Dhatusarata.


   Materials and Methods Top


Only textual materials are consulted for present study and from which the relevant references have been collected. The principal Ayurvedic texts referred in this study are Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Kashyap Samhita and the available commentaries on them. Modern texts and related websites have also been searched.

Characteristic features of Dhatusarata, i.e. tissue excellence in terms of qualities and functions are evaluated for this study and the outcome is applied in vocational guidance.


   Review of Literature Top


Sukha is happiness and this quality is available in various Dhatusaras. Sarata is described by Chakrapani as Vishuddatara Dhatu (highest level of tissue excellence). [1] The different meanings of Sara are strength, strong, highest, excellent, essence. [2] Charakacharya [3] and Sushrutacharya [4] described Dhatusaras. Both Samhitakaras have described eight types of Sara namely Tvak Sara or Rasa Sara, Rakta Sara, Mamsa Sara, Meda Sara, Asthi Sara, Majja Sara, Shukra Sara and Satva Sara. Description of Sara is also given in Kashyap Samhita. [5] Acharyas of Ayurved have clearly mentioned that Uttarottara Dhatusarata is Shreshtha, i.e. Rakta Sara is superior to Tvak Sara, Mamsa Sarata is superior to Rakta Sarata and so on.

Following characteristics of different Dhatusaras are available in various texts of Ayurved:-

Rasa/Twak Sara

The skin is unctuous (Snigdha), smooth (Shlakshna), soft (Mridu), charming (Prasanna), delicate (Sukumara), lustrous (Saprabha) and the hair on the skin are unctuous (Snigdha), smooth (Shlakshna), soft (Mridu), pleasant (Prasanna), delicate (Sukumara), minute (Sukshma), sparse (Alpa), deep rooted (Gambheera). Person with Uttam Tvak/Rasa Sara is endowed with happiness (Sukha), good fortune (Soubhagya), sovereignty (Aishwarya), enjoyment (Upabhoga), intelligence (Buddhi), knowledge (Vidya), health (Aarogya), pleasure (Praharsha) and longevity of life (Aayushyatwa). [3]

One, whose skin (Tvak) and hairs (Roma) are good looking (Suprasanna) and soft (Mrudu), is to be understood as Tvak Sara person. [4]

A child who is free from skin diseases (Tvakrogarahita), is pleasure seeking (Bhogi), has very clear and sharp features (Prasanna Vyanjana Chavi), and the wounds heal early (Sadyakshatprarohatva), is considered as a having skin as constitution essence. [5]

Rakta Sara

Ears (Karna), eyes (Netra), face (Mukha), tongue (Jihva), nose (Nasa), lips (Oshtha), palms (Panitala), soles of the foot (Paadatala), nails (Nakha), fore head (Lalata), penis (Medhra) are unctuous (Snigdha), red (Raktavarna), beautiful (Shrimad) and dazzling (Bhrajishnu). This Rakta Saaratva gives happiness (Sukha), arrogance (Uddhatam), good grasping power (Medha), self-respect (Manasvitvam), delicacy (Soukumaryam), less strength (Anatibalam), inability to face difficulties (Akleshsahishnutvam) and intolerance of heat (Ushnasahishnutvam). [3]

Rakta Sara person is known to possess unctuous (Snigdha) and coppery nails (Tamra Nakha), eyes (Nayana), palate (Talu), tongue (Jivha), lips (Oshtha), palms and soles (Pani padatala). [4]

Mamsa Sara

Temples (Shankha), forehead (Lalaat), atlanto-occipital joint (Krukatika), eyes (Akshi), zygomatic bone region (Ganda), jaw (Hanu), neck (Griva), shoulder (Skandha), abdomen (Udara), axilla (Kaksha), chest (Vaksha), joints of limbs are stable (Sthira pani-pada sandhi), heavy (Guru), good looking (Shubha) and well-covered with muscles (Mamsopachita). This Mamsa Sarata gives forgiveness (Kshama), patience (Dhruti), non-greediness (Aloulya), wealth (Vita), knowledge (Vidya), happiness (Sukha), kindness (Aarjava), strength (Bala), health (Aarogya) and long life (Deerghayu). [3]

Mamsa Sara person is known to possess few depressions (hollows) in the body, have well-covered (concealed) bones and joints and musculature. [4]

Meda Sara

Complexion (Varna), voice (Swara), eyes (Netra), hairs (Kasha), small hairs (Loma), nails (Nakha), teeth (Danta), lips (Oshtha), urine (Mutra), faces (Purisha) are excessively unctuous (Snigdha). This Medasarata gives wealth (Vita), sovereignty (Aishvarya), happiness (Sukha), enjoyment (Upabhog), charity (Pradaan), kindness (Aarjava), delicacy and they cannot tolerate severe treatment (Sukumaropacharata). [3]

Medasara person is known to pass unctuous (Snigdha) urine (Mutra) and sweat (Sweda), has a mellow voice (Snigdha Swara), a bulky body (Brihat Sharira) and are incapable of doing physical labor (Aayasa Asahishnu). [4]

Asthi Sara

Heels (Parshni), ankles (Gulpha), knees (Janu), forearm (Aratni), collarbones (Jatru), chin (Chibuk), digits (Parva), bones (Asthi), nails (Nakha), teeth (Danta) are robust or big (Sthula). This Asthisarata gives enthusiasm (Mahotsaha), activeness (Kriyavanta), endurance (Kleshasaha), well-built body (Sara-sharir), strong stable body (Sthira-sharira) and long life (Aayushmanta). [3]

Ashtisara person is known to possess a big head and shoulders (Maha shira skandha) and big teeth (Brihat danta), big jaws (Brihat Hanu), bones and nails (Brihat asthi and Brihat nakha). [4]

Majja Sara

Soft body (Mrudvanga), strong (Balavanta), unctuous complexion (Snigdha varna), melodious voice (Snigdha svara), prominent joints (Sthula sandhi), long joints (Dirgha sandhi), rounded joints (Vrutta sandhi). This Majjasarata gives long life (Dirghayusha), strength (Balavanta), well learning (Shrutabhaj), richness (Vittabhaja), special knowledge of science (Vidhnyanbhaj), progeny (Apatyabhaj) and respect (Sammanbhaj). [3]

Majjasara person is known to be not lean and thin (Akrusha), but to be powerful (Uttam Bala) to possess mellow (Snigdha) and sonorous (Gambhira) voice (Swara) and is endowed with good fortune (Soubhagyopapanna) and has big eyes (Mahanetra). [4]

Shukra Sara

Gentleness (Soumya), gentle look (Soumyaprekshina), milky white sclera (Kshirpurna netra), good sexual capacity (Praharshabahula), unctuous (Snigdha), round (Vritta), firm (Sara), even (Sama) and compact (Samhat) teeth (Danta) and their teeth resemble like Arabian jasmine (Shikhar danta), have pleasant and unctuous complexion and voice (Prasanna snigdha varna swara), these people are lustrous (Bhrajishnu) and have prominence of gluteus region (Mahasphik). This Shukrasarata gives liking by women (Stripriyatva), they enjoy intercourse (Stri upabhogitva) and have strength (Balawanta), happiness (Sukhabhaj), sovereignty (Aishwaryabhaj), health (Aarogyabhaj), wealth (Vittabhaj), respect (Sammanbhaj) and good progeny (Apatyabhaj). [3]

Shukrasara person is known to possess unctuous (Snigdha), compact (Samhat) and white (Shweta) bones (Asthi), teeth (Danta) and nails (Nakha) and has excessive sexual desire and children (Bahula kamapraja). [4]

While reviewing Ayurvedic literature, it is found that Sukha quality is not merely happiness. Acharya Dalhana opined this quality as Anukul Vedana (comfort zone) of the individual. [6] Sukha is liking or the thing in which the person is comfortable with. It means Sukha quality related to different Dhatusaras is having different shades. By knowing these shades of a particular Dhatu of that person, one can get an appropriate idea about his likings or the things he is comfortable with. By evaluation of Dhatusarata, one can know the true strength or ability of an individual. Thus by assessing Dhatusarata and Sukha, one can guide the person in choosing appropriate profession which will be according to individual's liking and also he will have the ability to become successful in that particular profession.


   Concept of Vocational Guidance Top


A vocation is a career or calling and this is derived from the Latin vocare, which means "to call". Vocational guidance means helping someone finding at least a suitable career choice. Vocations or careers can be randomly categorized into areas such as service, technical, mechanical, creative, health and business etc. [7]

Vocational exploration courses offer students an opportunity to search different career possibilities as well as learn which vocational areas they have potency or talent in. For instance, many vocational guidance classes give tests to the students which test their ability with numbers, words, mechanical concepts and many more subjects. Tests designed to measure an individual's personality traits, intelligence quotient (IQ) as well as his or her main values and interests are administered and analyzed by career counselors.

Vocational guidance is useful for all students who want to choose their career categories (around 11 th class) as well as for all individuals who want to tailor the career according to their personal interests. It is observed that some people change several careers in their life, while others stay in the same field during all their working years. All this depends on feeling of comfort, i.e. Sukha in their jobs.


   Interrelation between Top


Dhatusarata[TAG:2] and Vocational Guidance[/TAG:2]

Vocational guidance offers students the opportunity to search for different career possibilities as well as to learn which vocational areas they have aptitude or talent. By identifying one's own Dhatusarata, it is possible to guide the students in selecting their career that will suit to their liking as well as their ability for better future. If we recognize this and follow the guidelines according to Dhatusarata, we will not end up with the physical and mental health hassles that can lead to major complications.

Rasa/Twak Sara

Persons have radiant and fair skin while the hair and body hair are soft and nourished so they can make their career in modelling. They can do advertisements of make up products, skin products, hair products, shampoos, shaving creams and hair removing creams. They can work as sales executives as they are good looking, endowed with good communication skills. These people are intelligent so they can be good managers, initiators and are better with marketing departments. They can do hotel business; hotel management as these people love food.

Rakta Sara

As they possess excellent intelligence, are good book surfers and as they have innovative mind, they can work as academicians, researchers, doctors and engineers. They can very well understand people, so they can be consultants/counselors and good administrators. They have an intuitive knowledge which can make them successful in applied sciences. They cannot tolerate exertion and also hot temperament so they should always work in cool atmosphere and do less strenuous jobs.

Mamsa Sara

These individuals have a robust and stout body and also a good moral and a long life so they can be military officers and good administrators. These individuals can make their career in sports as they have good muscle strength and great stamina. They have a well covered body, good strength so they can be wrestlers, good gym trainers. They can choose modeling as a career because of having a strong and healthy body.

Meda Sara

These people have melodious voice, so they can be singers, broadcasters These people have unctuous looks and voice, so they can work as anchor persons. These people love sedentary life and like to enjoy life. They are unable to bear exertion; they love luxury so they can be good hoteliers, luxury store owners. They have a taste of what is best suited so they can be good fashion critics.

Asthi Sara

They are inborn athletes as they are active, enthusiastic and have a well built body. They are motivators, work initiators so they can be leaders. They can make their career in adventure sports like river rafting, biking (mountain), mountaineering etc., as these people are amazing in combination with endurance. They have great combination of bravery and body; they can withstand strenuous activity so they can work as astronauts, in Special Forces such as marine commandos, military, NSC commandos, black cats etc.

Majja Sara

These persons have very expressive eyes with a proportional and stable body, so they can be exceptionally good dancers. They have very sweet voice so they can be good singers. They have expressive features, also are very pleasant to look at so they can make their career in acting and moddeling. They have lots of patience for a thing to get its results, so they can work as scientists. These people are soft spoken, pleasant, courteous and extremely intelligent so they can be good doctors. They have money and can resourcefully use it to maximum benefits so they can be finance managers. These people are intellectual, like to read, write and deliver lectures so they can choose to work in academic field.

Shukra Sara

They hardly do any work as they are endowed with luxuries from the very day they are born. Their human or conversational skills are very good. They have a profound understanding of public affairs so they can work as human resource managers. They are extremely attractive and thus can become good actors/models by being popular with the opposite sex and able to make mark in the world. They understand luxury and can run luxurious spas, hotels etc., They are beautiful and are connoisseurs (understand and appreciate art) of art and beauty themselves so they can be makeup artists, painters, artisans or sculptors.


   Discussion Top


Description of Dhatusarata available in Ayurvedic texts is subjective. Objective data is more acceptable rather than descriptive one for statistical analysis.

By knowing Dhatusarata, one can know about the abilities for particular profession but to get intimate success, one must concentrate on the comfort zone, i.e. Sukha. From literary study of Dhatusarata and Sukha, a questionnaire can be developed to assess Sukha in different Dhatusarata more precisely. Rasa/Twak Sara persons are rich in skin texture, i.e. their skin is radiant and fair, they have supple and nourished hair so we can say that these persons have Sukha of skin and hair texture. They can choose their career in modeling.

Rasa/Twak Sara persons are also very good tasters, they have a great sense of taste. So they can be good hoteliers. They can go on entire day on water or juice alone without feeling any physical distress because they naturally store plenty of energy in anticipation of such periods of deprivation. So it can be stated that these persons are expert in taste perception that means they like various tastes and they are very much comfortable with that.

Rakta Sara persons have Sukha in reading, writing, discussing, i.e. they have intellectual liking. Sukha in this context means a cause of satisfaction, so if this quality is utilized in their profession then they will be definitely successful and also enjoy their profession.

Mamsa Sara persons have a god gift of good physique. So it can be affirmed that they have Sukha in a state of physical wellbeing. They can utilize this quality accordingly by choosing their career as military officer or navy officer, sports like body building, wrestling, weight lifting etc.

Meda Sara persons have Sukha, i.e. they are comfortable with luxurious life. Here Sukha means a feeling that makes life pleasant. They cannot tolerate exertion so they require sedentary jobs. They are intelligent and suitable for administrative jobs. These people have boon of melodious voice, so they can be singers, announcers, commentators etc.

Shukra Sara persons have Sukha in art and beauty. Sukha in this context means liking, so if their career is related to some art or cosmetics etc., then they will be definitely successful and satisfied also.

Sukha quality is not mentioned in Asthi and Majjasara people. But Asthisara people are indulged in work and they love work, so we can say that they get Sukha or these people are comfortable with continuous work.

In case of Majjasara people, they are intellectually so strong that they are above the Sukha or comfort level. These people always think for others so they don't think about self-comfort.

Overall, it is found that Sukha quality has different shades in all Dhatusaras such as liking, comfort, a cause of satisfaction, a state of physical wellbeing, a feeling that makes life pleasant etc.

By knowing the Sukha or comfort zone of a particular Dhatu of individual, it will help to get an appropriate idea about his abilities/likings or the things he is comfortable with. Also by knowing Uttam Dhatusarata of an individual, it will be easier to know about the true strength. So by the combination of these two, it is very easy to guide the person in choosing appropriate profession which will be according to individual's liking and also becomes successful in that particular profession.

An objective criterion in the form of questionnaire can be developed by this literary review. A retrospective study can be undertaken with the help of this manuscript and questionnaire to see whether successful people of same profession are having similarity in their Dhatusarata or not.


   Conclusion Top


It has been concluded that shades of Sukha qualities varies with particular Dhatusaras. This study will be helpful to guide the person in choosing appropriate profession which will be according to his liking, i.e. Sukha and also he will have the ability to succeed in that particular profession. A particular designation can be assigned to an employee according to his ability and liking by knowing this concept of Dhatusarata and Sukha.

 
   References Top

1.
Chakrapanidatta, commentator, Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana, Rogbhishgjitiyavimana Adhyaya 8/102, Reprint ed. Choukhambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2005; 278.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Apte VS. The students Sanskrit-English dictionary. Reprint ed. New Delhi: Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan; 2006. p. 599.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Chakrapanidatta, commentator. Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana, Rogbhishgjitiyavimana Adhyaya 8/102-114, Reprint ed. Choukhambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2005; 278.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Aturopkramaniya Adhyaya, 35/16, edited by Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya, Reprint ed. Choukhambha Krishanadas Academy, Varanasi, 2004; 152.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Vriddha Jivaka, Kashyapa Samhita, Sutrasthana, 28/36-37, edited by Tewari PV, reprint ed. Choukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi, 2002; 86.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Sharir Sthana, Sarvabhutachinta Sahrira Adhyaya, 1/17, edited by Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya, Reprint ed. Choukhambha Krishanadas Academy, Varanasi, 2004; 342.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.




 

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  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Review of Literature
    Concept of Vocat...
    Interrelation be...
    and Vocational G...
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References

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