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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 344-347  

A comparative experimental study to evaluate Mutrala (diuretic) activity of Bilva Moola and Patra (Aegle marmelos Corr.)


1 Department of Dravyaguna, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication20-Mar-2015

Correspondence Address:
Neha A Parmar
Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Dravyaguna, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat - 361 008
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.153790

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   Abstract 

Background: Bilva Moola (root of Aegle marmelos Corr.) is one of the ingredients of Dashamoola. According to Siddha Bhaishaja Manimala, therapeutical properties denoted for the official part used are to be considered for all the other parts of the same plant. If the leaf of the plant is equally effective as the root then the destruction of the whole plant can be prevented. Aim: Study is planned to assess whether the leaves of Bilva can be substituted for its root by using the parameter of diuretic activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Both samples Bilva Moola and Patra were administered to experimental rats by oral route at dose of 450 mg/kg. Control group received only normal saline. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring urine volume, sodium, potassium content in urine. Glucose, bilirubin, ketone, specific gravity, blood, pH of urine, protein, and urobilinogen, were also measured. Results: Both test drugs showed increase in urine output but root sample showed maximum output compared to leaves treated and control group of rats. Sodium and potassium level is found more pronounced in root than the leaf. There is a mild increase in urine pH for both the drugs. There is absence of glucose, bilirubin, ketone and haemoglobin in all the groups. Conclusion: The root sample of the plant showed a greater effect as diuretic in comparison to leaf, hence as per the concept leaves may replace root in Dashamoola and can be used as Shothahara but effect may be less compared to root part.

Keywords: Aegle marmelos, Bilva, Dashamoola, diuretics, substitute


How to cite this article:
Parmar NA, Patel BR, Nariya MB. A comparative experimental study to evaluate Mutrala (diuretic) activity of Bilva Moola and Patra (Aegle marmelos Corr.) . AYU 2014;35:344-7

How to cite this URL:
Parmar NA, Patel BR, Nariya MB. A comparative experimental study to evaluate Mutrala (diuretic) activity of Bilva Moola and Patra (Aegle marmelos Corr.) . AYU [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Jan 26];35:344-7. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2014/35/3/344/153790


   Introduction Top


Bilva Moola (roots of Aegle marmelos Corr.) is one of the ingredients of Dashamoola and Brihat Panchamoola. It takes many years to grow a matured tree, to obtain root a plant has to be uprooted entirely, thus destroying the plant forever. In addition, Red Data List of Indian Plants puts A. marmelos in vulnerable threat status. [1] There is a greater need to discover suitable substitutes for it. Bilva Moola has Mutral (diuretic) activity [2] and is useful in Ashmari (urinary calculi), Sharkara (concretions), Mutrakrichha (dysurea), [3] Mutraghat (anuria), Shotha (oedema); while Bilva Patra (leaves of Aegle marmelos) is useful in Shotha. [4] Dashamoola is well known Shothahara Dashemani of Charaka Samhita. Shothahara is often interpreted as anti-inflammatory activity. Shothahara Dravyas removes Srotorodha doing Pachana (digestion) and Anulomana of Malabhaga Doshas (metabolic waste). According to ancient Acharyas of Ayurveda Mutra (urine) is liquid Malas (wastes) or waste products which are formed and excreted after Pachana of the ingested food and the substances which promote urine formation are known as Mutral Dravyas. So, Mutral activity is one part of Shothahara Karma. According to Siddha Bheshajya Manimala, therapeutical properties denoted for the official part used are to be considered for all the other parts of the same plant. [5] To stop destroying plants, it would be useful to evaluate diuretic activity of Bilva Moola and Patra experimentally to establish the efficacy of Bilva Patra. Pharmacological methods as per modern concepts provide a scientific base for therapeutic use of Bilva Moola and Patra. An experimental study was designed, to establish the leaf of Bilva (A. marmelos Corr.) as a substituted for its root and pharmacological evaluation of root and leaves part of A. marmelos Corr. (Bilva) for their diuretic effects in experimental animals.


   Materials and Methods Top


Procurement and preparation of test drug

Root and leaves of Bilva was collected from the Jamnagar area. The parts of Bilva were identified and authenticated by comparing it with different floras. The drug was thoroughly washed with water and then roots and leaves were shade dried. The parts of Bilva were pulverized to a fine powder (mesh no. number 80) and stored in airtight glass container for experimental purposes.

Animals

Wistar strain albino rats of either sex and weighing between 180 and 220 g were obtained from the animal house attached to the Institute. The rats were maintained on Amrut brand animal pellet feed of Pranav Agro Industries, and drinking water was given ad-libitum. The animals were acclimatized 1 week before experimentation period. The animals were exposed to 12 h light and 12 h dark cycle with the relative humidity of 50-70% and the ambient temperature 22 ± 3°C during the experimental period. All animals were kept in the same environmental conditions. The experimental protocols were approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC/12/2012/05) in accordance with the guidelines formulated by CPCSE, India.

Dose fixation and route of administration

The dose for experimental study was calculated by extrapolating the human dose to animal dose based on the body surface area ratio using the table of Paget and Barnes. [6] Therapeutic human dose × surface area ratio (convertibility factor) for rats.

Human dose = 5000 mg/day [7]

Rat dose = 5000 × 0.018 (conversion factor or body surface area for man to rat).

= 90 mg/200 g rat = 450 mg/kg body weight of rats.

Preparation of test sample

Stock solutions of samples were prepared by dissolving 10 mg of dried sample in 10 ml of distilled water.

Route of drug administration

The vehicle and test drug were administered by oral route with the help of a (feeding tube) gastric catheter sleeved to the disposable syringe.

Grouping

Diuretic activity was evaluated in 18 Wistar strain of albino rats of either sex. The animals were divided into three groups (six animals in each)

  • Group I: Control group
  • Group II: Root powder of A. marmelos Corr.
  • Group III: Leaves powder of A. marmelos Corr.


Diuretic activity

Diuretic agent increases the quantity of urine. Normal urine output in rats is very small (1-2 ml/rat/day) hence to get the measurable quantity, the animals are to be hydrated. The urine output increases after administration of diuretics. Increases in volume of urine is measured and compared with normal urine output.

The diuretic activity was carried out as per procedure described by Gillard et al. [8] Rats were allowed free access to water and food till the start of the experiment. The overnight fasted rats were administered distilled water in the dose of 5 ml/100 g body weight to ensure uniform hydration. After oral drug administration, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages with netted floor, and urine was collected for a period of 5 h in conical flasks placed below the polythene funnel of the metabolic cages. Collected volume of urine of each rat was noted down. A urine sample was taken for the estimation of sodium and potassium by flame photometry. Glucose, bilirubin, ketone, specific gravity, blood, pH of urine, protein, and urobilinogen, were also measured using standard Ames multiple strips.

Statistical analysis

The obtained data has been presented as mean ± standard error of the mean, difference between the groups, statistically determined by Student's t-test for unpaired data to assess the statistical significance between the groups. P < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.


   Results and Observations Top


[Table 1] shows data of the urine volume for diuretic activity of the plant, in which both test drugs showed increase in urine output. The root sample showed maximum excretion of urine volume compared to leaves treated rats and control group of rats. Data of the [Table 2] reveals that the root showed a maximum percentage excretion of sodium (45.44%) and potassium (47.98%) in urine compared to control group. Bilva leaves showed decrease in sodium excretion and increase in potassium excretion in urine compared to control group. The activity of root is more pronounced than the leaf drug. [Table 3] shows the effect of test drugs on pH and specific gravity of urine in hydrated rats. The results showed a mild increase in urine pH for both the drugs. The test drugs did not affect the specific gravity of urine compared to control group. [Table 4] shows the effect of test drugs on glucose, bilirubin, ketone and haemoglobin in urine of hydrated rats. The results show that all four parameters were absent in the urine of all rats. [Table 5] shows the effect of test drugs on protein and urobilinogen of urine in hydrated rats. The result showed an increase in urine protein content for both parts of drug. However changes were statistically insignificant. That shows parts of the drug do not hamper kidney function. Bilva root showed decrease in urobilinogen excretion compared to control group. The activity of root is more pronounced than the leaf drug.
Table 1: Effect of A. marmelos on urine volume in hydrated rats


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Table 2: Effect of A. marmelos on urinary excretion of Na+ and K+ in hydrated rats


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Table 3: Effect of A. marmelos on pH and specific gravity of urine of hydrated rats


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Table 4: Effect of A. marmelos on glucose, bilirubin, ketone and haemoglobin in urine of hydrated rats


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Table 5: Effect of A. marmelos on protien and urobilinogen in urine of hydrated rats


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   Discussion Top


Bilva Moola is one of the ingredients of Dashamoola. The aim was to find Dashamoola Substitutes. Findings of the conducted experiments have shown that Bilva Patra may be substituted for Bilva Moola in certain conditions. Diuretics are drugs that increase the rate of urine flow and excretion of electrolytes. The present study demonstrated the diuretic activity of root and leaves of A. marmelos Corr. In this study, root and leaves markedly enhanced urine volume and potassium level in urine. Root of Bilva showed marked increase in sodium level, while leaves decreased sodium level compared to control group. Bilva root has more pronounced activity than Bilva leaves [Table 6]. The observed pattern of diuretic is similar to the pattern observed with thiazide diuretics which increase the sodium and potassium and hence resulting in an increase of urine formation. [9],[10],[11] Diuretics act by decreasing the re-absorption of sodium in the convoluted tubules. The root sample of the plant shows a greater effect as diuretic in comparison to leaves, hence as per the concept leaves may replace root in Dashamoola which is mainly indicated for Shotha. Shotha can be interpreted as edema, for this, one of the treatment is diuretics, but effect may be less compared to root part. Human physiology differs from animal physiology and animal studies have own limitation. The root sample of the plant shows a greater effect as diuretic in comparison to leaf, hence as per the concept leaves may replace root in Dashamoola and can be used as Shothahara but effect may be less compared to root part. Human physiology differs from animal physiology and animal studies have own limitations further clinical study may be carried out to prove the above said claims.
Table 6: Consolidate statement showing the effects of Bilva leaves with Bilva roots on different urine parameters in rats


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   Conclusion Top


Both root and leaves of Bilva, showed better diuretic activity in albino rats at dose level of 90 mg/ 200 g. However, Bilva root has more pronounced diuretic activity in comparison to Bilva leaves. As per the concept adapted, Bilva leaves may be substituted for Bilva root individually as well as in Dashamoola as diuretic. Keeping this in mind, it can be suggested to prefer Bilva leaves instead of Bilva root which facilitates in preventing destruction of whole plant.

 
   References Top

1.
Red listed medicinal plants species. Available from: http://envis.frlht.org/junclist.php?txtbtname=&gesp=63ǀAegle+marmelos+%28L.%29+CORREA+EX.+SCHULTZ. [Last accessed on 2012 Dec 19].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1. Vol. 3., 1 st ed. New Delhi: Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of I.S.M. and H.; 1999. pp. 29-31.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kaideva, Kaiyadeva Nighantu, Aushadhi Varga/19, edited by Sharma PV, 2 nd ed. Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2006; 6-7, 563.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Madhav, Vrindamadhav, Shotha/14, Translated by Tewari P, 1 st ed. Chaukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi, 2007; 399.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bhatt KS, Siddha Bhaishaj Manimala, Dwitiyaguccha 2/2, Hindi Commentary by Bhatt SR. 3 rd ed.Chawkhambha Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, 2003; 7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Paget GE, Barnes JM. Evaluation of drug activities. In: Pharmacometrics. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press; 1969. pp. 161.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kaideva, Kaiyadeva Nighantu, Aushadhi Varga/19, edited by Sharma PV, 2 nd ed. Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2006;. p. 31.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Gillard E, Headwell PR, Mullen K. In: Turner RA, Hebborn P, editors. Screening Method of Pharmacology. Vol. 2. Academic Press, New York; 1971. pp. 249.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Guyton AC, Hall JE. The body fluid compartments, extracellular and intracellular fluids; interstitial fluid and edema. In: Textbook of Medical Physiology. 9 th ed. Singapore: W.B. Saunders Company; 1998. pp. 306-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK. Pharmacology. 5 th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2003. pp. 355.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Brubeck JR. The Best and Taylor′s Physiological Basis of Medical Practice. Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Company; 1973. pp. 20-2.  Back to cited text no. 11
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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