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PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 187-190  

Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati: An Ayurvedic compound formulation


1 Department of Kayachikitsa, SKSS Ayurvedic College, Sarabha, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Research and Development, The Himalaya Drug Company, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Kayachikitsa, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
4 SDM Research Centre for Ayurveda and Allied Sciences, Udupi, Karnataka, India
5 Ch. Brahm Prakash Charak Ayurved Sansthan, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication5-Dec-2014

Correspondence Address:
Kanwar Samrat Singh
H. No. 273/3, Tej Colony, Tehsil - Samana, Patiala, Punjab - 147 101
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.146248

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   Abstract 

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a persistent health problem that requires innovative strategies to improve health and needs a multifactorial approach for the treatment. Saptarangyadi Ghanavati, a formulated Ayurvedic compound consists of herbs with anti-diabetic potential. Aim: To evaluate the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of Saptarangydi Ghanavati. Materials and Methods: For hypoglycemic activity 18 Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups (6 in each). First group served as normal control, second group is the test drug and third is the standard control group. For antihyperglycemic activity 24 Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (6 in each). First group served as water control, second negative control, third test drug and fourth as standard control group. Test drug Saptarangydi Ghanavati was suspended in water and administered to animals at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Glibenclamide was used as reference standard in both the models at the dose of 0.65 mg/kg. Results: Saptarangyadi Ghanavati showed mild reduction in Blood Sugar Level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice; however, the observed decrease of BSL was found to be statistically non significant. In antihyperglycemic activity, even though the drug failed to cease the hyperglycemia in the first hour after the glucose overload, it attenuated the same in later hours in nonsignificant extent. Conclusion: The study reveals that Saptarangydi Ghanavati has moderate hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect.

Keywords: Albino mice, antihyperglycemic, glibenclamide, hypoglycemic, Saptarangydi Ghanavati


How to cite this article:
Singh KS, Ashok B K, Kaur M, Ravishankar B, Chandola HM. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati: An Ayurvedic compound formulation. AYU 2014;35:187-90

How to cite this URL:
Singh KS, Ashok B K, Kaur M, Ravishankar B, Chandola HM. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati: An Ayurvedic compound formulation. AYU [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Feb 21];35:187-90. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2014/35/2/187/146248


   Introduction Top


The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of diabetes around the globe because of the adverse effects of the conventional medicine used to treat diabetes mellitus. Herbal medicines are free from side effects and are less costly when compared to the synthetic anti-diabetic agents. The major side effect related to antidiabetic agents is hypoglycemia. Further a safe and reliable antidiabetic drug should lower the raised blood glucose levels to the desired level, not lowering the blood glucose levels to a life-threatening condition.

Sapatarangyadi ghanavati is the combination of Ayurvedic drugs with potent antihyperglycemic drugs like Saptarangi (Salacia chinensis L.), [1] Karvellaka (Momordia charantia L.), [2],[3] Methika (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), [4] Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers) [5],[6],[7]] and Triphala.[8],[9] This formulation was specially formulated for the treatment of diabetic patients. [10] To provide experimental basis to clinical findings, hypoglycemic antihyperglycemic activity has been undertaken.


   Materials and Methods Top


Animals

Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) of either sex weighing 28 ± 02 g were obtained from animal house attached to Pharmacology Laboratory of I.P.G.T and R.A, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. Six animals were housed in each cage made of polypropylene with stainless steel top grill. The dry wheat (post hulled) waste was used as bedding material and was changed every morning. The animals were exposed to 12-hour light and 12-hour dark cycle with the relative humidity of 50-70% and the ambient temperature during the period of experimentation was 22 ± 03°C. Animals were fed with Amrut brand rat pellet feed supplied by Pranav Agro Mills Pvt. Limited and for their drinking purpose tap water ad libitum was used. The experiments were carried out after obtaining permission from Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (Approval number: IAEC/07/2010/06/MD).

Test formulation

The genuine and authenticated raw materials [Table 1] of the test formulation were procured from Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. They were made to coarse powder form and mixed in equal proportions. The decoction was prepared by following the classical method. [11] The decoction was then filtered and further heated up to a concentrated form, i.e., Ghana was formed and then tablets (each of 200 mg).
Table 1: Formulation composition of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati

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Dose selection and schedule

The dose of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati for adult is 3 g/day. The dose for experimental animals (mouse) was calculated by extrapolating the human dose to animals (390 mg/kg rounded to 400 mg/kg) based on the body surface area ratio by referring to the standard table of Paget and Barnes. [12] The test drug was suspended in distilled water with suitable concentration depending up on body weight of animals prior to administration. This was administered to animals orally with the help of gastric catheter sleeved to syringe. The drugs were administered to overnight fasted animals.

Hypoglycemic activity

Swiss albino mice of either sex were randomly divided into three groups of six each. The first group served as normal control and to the second group test drug Saptarangyadi Ghanavati was administered in the dose of 400 mg/kg and the third group served as standard control group to which glibenclamide (0.65 mg/kg) was administered.

The animals were fasted overnight prior to the experiment and in the morning the fasting initial reading of Blood Sugar Level (BSL) was measured with the help of One Touch Easy Glucometer by using One Touch Easy GlucoTest Strips as per user's guideline by anaesthetizing the animals with ether and collecting the blood sample from tail vein following aseptic conditions. Then the test drug and vehicles were administered to respective groups. The BSL was recorded after 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 5 h of test drug administration for assessing the hypoglycemic effect of test drug. [13]

Antihyperglycemic activity

Swiss albino mice of either sex were randomly divided into four groups of six each. First group served as water control and second group served as negative control to which glucose (5 g/kg) solution alone was administered. To third group test drug Saptarangyadi ghanavati was administered in the dose of (400 mg/kg) was given. Forth group served as standard control group (n = 6) to which glibenclamide (0.65 mg/kg) [ 14] was given.

The animals were fasted overnight prior to the experiment and in the morning the fasting initial BSL was measured as mentioned in hypoglycemic activity. Test drug Saptarangyadi Ghanavati and reference standard drug were given to the respective group of animals as per the body weight. After 1 h of drug administration glucose (5 g/kg) solution was administered to second, third and fourth groups orally by dissolving it in distilled water. Thereafter, BSL was recorded at 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min of postglucose overload for accessing the antihyperglycemic activity of test drug. [13]

Statistical analysis

The results are presented as Mean ± SEM. The data generated during the study were subjected to Student's 't' test for paired and unpaired data to assess the statistical significance. The values were considered significant at the levels of P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001.


   Results Top


The administration of glibenclemide to overnight fasted mice leads to significant reduction in blood glucose level at almost all time intervals. In Saptarangyadi Ghanavati treated group also reduction in BSL was observed in all time intervals, however the observed decrease of BSL is found to be statistically insignificant [Table 2]. The result of this study indicates that Saptarangydi Ghanavati is having mild hypoglycemic property.

Administration of glucose overload leads to insignificant increase in BSL in glucose control group [Table 3]. Test drug and reference standard drug insignificantly decreased BSL of glucose-overloaded mice at 30 minutes after glucose overload in comparison to glucose control group. At 60, 90 and 120 minutes also test drug did not attenuate the blood glucose level in significant manner. Standard control drug attenuated blood glucose level in time-dependant manner.
Table 2: Effect of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati on blood sugar level in normal overnight fasted Swiss albino mice at various intervals

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Table 3: Effect of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati on blood sugar level in glucose-overloaded Swiss albino mice at various time intervals

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   Discussion Top


An antidiabetic agent should be having a good effect on lowering the raised blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic subjects. But it should not lower the blood glucose levels below normal, in normoglycemic subjects. Hypoglycemia is a fatal medical emergency, which require immediate intervention in the form glucose administration to cover up the glucose deficiency in the blood. Thus hypoglycemic potential of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati was compared with the standard reference drug, glibenclemide, of which hypoglycemia like side effects are not uncommon. [15] The results of this study shows that administration of glibenclemide to overnight fasted mice leads to significant reduction in blood glucose level at almost all time intervals. In Saptarangyadi Ghanavati treated group also reduction in BSL was observed in all time intervals; however, the observed decrease of BSL is found to be statistically insignificant. The result of this study indicates that Saptarangydi Ghanavati is having moderate hypoglycemic property.

The antidiabetic drugs which improve oral glucose response in the subjects are potent antihyperglycemic agent. Hence, Saptarangyadi Ghanavati was evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity against glucose overloading. In present study administration of glucose overload leads to insignificant increase in BSL in glucose control group. Both test drug and reference standard drugs insignificantly decreased BSL of glucose overloaded mice at 30 minutes after glucose overload. At 60, 90 and 120 minutes also test drug did not attenuate the BSL in significant manner. Standard control drug significantly attenuated BSL in time dependant manner. This shows that Saptarangydi Ghanavati is having moderate antihyperglycemic activity. Being a polyherbal formulation it contains like Methika, Karvellaka, Guduchi, Saptarangi and Triphala, may be responsible for this observation.


   Conclusions Top


Saptarangydi Ghanavati has moderate hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect. The study is only preliminary and based on the present findings antidiabetic potential of this formulation can further be studied in diabetic rats.

 
   References Top

1.
Yoshino K, Miyauchi Y, Kanetaka T, Takagi Y, Koga K. Anti-diabetic activity of a leaf extract prepared from Salacia reticulata in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2009;73:1096-104.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Tongia A, Tongia SK, Dave M. Phytochemical determination and extraction of Momordica charantia fruit and its hypoglycemic potentiation of oral hypoglycemic drugs in diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004;48:241-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Miura T, Itoh C, Iwamoto N, Kato M, Kawai M, Park SR, et al. Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2001;47:340-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Zia T, Hasnain SN, Hasan SK. Evaluation of the oral hypoglycaemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (methi) in normal mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;75:191-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Goel HC, Prem Kumar I, Rana SV. Free radical scavenging and metal chelation by Tinospora cordifolia, apossible role in radioprotection. Indian J Exp Biol 2002;40;727-34.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay S. Antioxidant properties of a Tinospora cordifolia polysaccharide against iron mediated lipid damage and gamma-ray induced protein damage. Redox Rep 2002;7:137-43.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gupta SS, Verma SC, Garg VP, Rai M. Anti-diabetic effects of Tinospora cordifolia. I. Effect on fasting blood sugar level, glucose tolerance and adrenaline induced hyperglycaemia. Indian J Med Res 1967;55:733-45.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sabu MC, Kuttan R. Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:155-60.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Manikandan S, Narayanan GS, Sheeladevi R. Effect of Triphala on oxidative stress and on cell-mediated immune response against noice stress in rats. Mol Cell Biochem 2006;283:67-74.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Singh KS. Study on Apathyanimittaja Prameha (Type-2 Diabetes) and its management with Saptarangyadi Ghanavati (A Clinico-Experimental study)", MD dissertation submitted to Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat. 2011.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sharangadhara, Sharangadhara Samhita, Kwatha Kalpana chapter, 1-2, commentary by Radhakrishna Parashar, 4 th ed. Baidyanath Ayurveda Bhavan Ltd, Nagpur, 1994; 189.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Paget GE, Barnes JM. Evaluation of drug activities, In: Lawrence DR, Bacharach AL, editors. Pharmacometrics. New York: Academic Press; 1964. pp. 161.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Sah SP, Sah ML, Juyal V, Pandey S. Hypoglycemic activity of aqueous extract of Urtica parviflora roxb. in normoglycemic rats. International Journal of Phytomedicine 2010;247-51.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Nardos A, Makonnen E, Debella A. Effects of crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f) Cufodontis leaves in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2011;5:2220-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Codario RA. Type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome: The primary care guide to diagnosis and management. Totowa, NJ, USA: Humana Press; 2005. pp. 75-90.  Back to cited text no. 15
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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