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PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 288-293  

Pharmacognostical and Preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Triphaladi granules - A polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation


1 Ph.D Scholar, Department of Kayachikitsa, Chaudhary Brahm Prakash Ayurved Charak Sansthan, Khera Dabar, Najafgarh, New Delhi, India
2 Director, Chaudhary Brahm Prakash Ayurved Charak Sansthan, Khera Dabar, Najafgarh, New Delhi, India
3 Head, Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
4 Head, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Kayachikitsa, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
6 Laboratory Assistant, Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication17-Dec-2013

Correspondence Address:
Ankush H Gunjal
Ph.D Scholar, Department of Kaya Chikitsa IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University Jamnagar - 361 008,Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.123128

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   Abstract 

Triphaladi Kwatha , a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation, is recommended by Chakradatta and Yogaratnakara in the management of Prameha which has resemblance with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study deals with development of pharmacognostical and preliminary pharmaceutical profile of Triphaladi granules. The pH (5% aqueous extract) was 6.0, water-soluble extract 48.66% w/w, alcohol-soluble extract 33.91% w/w, ash value 5.97% w/w, and loss on drying at 105°C was 6.53% w/w. High performance thin layer chromatography were carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum nine spots were distinguished and few of the R f values were identical in the alcoholic extract.

Keywords: High performance thin layer chromatography, Pharmacognosy, Prameha, Triphaladi granules


How to cite this article:
Gunjal AH, Chandola H, Harisha C R, Shukla VJ, Goyal M, Pandya P. Pharmacognostical and Preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Triphaladi granules - A polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation. AYU 2013;34:288-93

How to cite this URL:
Gunjal AH, Chandola H, Harisha C R, Shukla VJ, Goyal M, Pandya P. Pharmacognostical and Preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Triphaladi granules - A polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation. AYU [serial online] 2013 [cited 2020 Jan 26];34:288-93. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2013/34/3/288/123128


   Introduction Top


Recent years have witnessed a gradual decline of medicinal plant availability as well as the number of tribal traditional healers and their medicinal knowledge. Herbal medicines have a long history for their therapeutic application and are still serving many of the health needs of a global population. However, the quality control and quality assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Herbal drugs, singularly or in combination, contain numerous active principles in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing specific quality control standards of finished products.

Administration of drug in various dosage forms provides an opportunity to the physician to choose better options. Various dosage forms have been described in Ayurvedic texts. One among them is Kwatha, [1] which is highly effective when used freshly prepared, but they are often overlooked due to preparation method and palatability. In the present study, Triphaladi Kwatha, [2] a known formulation used in Prameha (type 2 diabetes mellitus), was converted into granules by Rasakriya method to make it palatable, easy to dispense and for dose fixation, etc. As no standard finger print is available for this compound formulation, an attempt has been made to evolve preliminary physico-chemical profile of Triphaladi granules (TG).


   Materials and Methods Top


Collection and authentication of raw drugs

The formulation composition of TG was obtained from Pharmacy of Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The API standards were used for pharmacognostical authentication of Amalaki, [3] Asana, [4] Bibhitaki, [5] Haritaki, [6] Kutaja, [7] Daruharidra, [8] and Musta[9] based on the morphological features, organoleptic characters and powder microscopy of individual drugs.

Method of preparation of Triphaladi granules

Dried raw materials in equal proportions [Table 1] were crushed to prepare coarse powder separately and mixed with 8 parts of water in a stainless steel container. Continuous mild heat was applied until it was reduced to one-fourth of its initial quantity. During heating process, continuous stirring was done to facilitate the evaporation and avoid any deterioration due to burning of materials. After a desirable reduction in volume was achieved, Kwatha was filtered through single folded cotton cloth and collected into a separate vessel.
Table 1: Ingredients of TG

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Subsequently, the Kwatha was boiled again over slow fire on a gas stove, maintaining the temperature between 90°C and 95°C till a semisolid consistency was obtained. As the water evaporated, the viscosity of the extract increased, resulting in solid mass (Ghana).[10] Ghana was mixed with 10% of the fine powder of Triphaladi Kwatha.

The solid mass (Ghana) was passed through a sieve no. 8 to prepare granules and were then dried at 50°C in a hot air oven for 5 h. [11]

Pharmacognostical evaluation

Pharmacognostical analysis of TG comprises of organoleptic characters [i.e., color, odor, taste, and texture, was recorded] and microscopic studies. Small Quantity of TG was dissolved in distilled water, filtered through filter paper. The precipitate was treated with and without stain to find out the lignified material along with other cellular components. These findings were compared with the characters of individual components of TG. The microphotographs were taken under Carl Zeiss Binocular microscope attached with camera. [12],[13]

Physicochemical evaluation

TG were analyzed through relevant physicochemical parameters such as loss on drying, ash value, water-soluble extract, alcohol-soluble extract, and pH value. [14],[15],[16] In qualitative analysis, presence of glycosides, tannins, and flavonoids were assessed. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) is carried out with methanolic extract of TG. [17],[18]

High performance thin layer chromatography

Methanolic extract of TG was spotted on pre-coated silica gel GF 60 254 aluminum plate by means of Camang Linomat V sample applicator fitted with a 100-μL Hamilton syringe. Chloroform: MeOH (9:1) was used as the mobile phase. After development, densitometric scan was performed with a Camag TLC scanner III in reflectance absorbance mode at UV detection as 254 nm and 366 nm under the control of Win CATS Software (V 1.2.1. Camag). Then the plate was sprayed with vanillin sulfuric acid followed by heating and then visualized in daylight.


   Observations and Results Top


Pharmacognostical analysis

Detailed pharmacognostical evaluation was carried out for all the ingredients of TG. Organoleptic characters of TG are placed in [Table 2] powder microscopy of TG showed striking characters of all individual components of TG. Microscopy of Terminalia chebula Retz. showed features like brownish content [Figure 1]a, fibers and sclereids [Figure 1]b, pitted fibers [Figure 1]c, rosette crystals [Figure 1]d, sclereids and stone cells [Figure 1]e, starch grains [Figure 1]f, tannin contents, fibers, etc., Emblica officinalis Gaertn. showed group of fibers [Figure 1]g, pitted stone cells [Figure 1]h, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate [Figure 1]i, spiral vessels [Figure 1]j, and yellowish colored parenchyma cells in surface view. Whereas Terminalia bellerica Roxb. presented with epidermal cells in surface view [Figure 2]a, pitted sclereids [Figure 2]b, starch grains [Figure 2]c, pitted vessel and group of fibers [Figure 2]d, rosette crystals and brownish colored matter [Figure 2]e, stone cells and sclereids [Figure 2]f, etc., Berberis aristata D.C. consisted of cork cells in surface view, group of fibers [Figure 2]g, pitted sclereids and parenchymas [Figure 2]h, pitted stone cells [Figure 2]i, pitted vessel [Figure 2]j, prismatic crystals [Figure 2]k, starch grains, and yellowish and brownish colored content [Figure 2]l. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Showed pitted vessel [Figure 2]m, group of fibres [Figure 2]n, parenchyma cells having brownish deposition [Figure 2]o, and prismatic crystal [Figure 3]a. Hollarrhena antidysenterica Wall. consisted of cork cells in surface view, parenchyma cells embedded with starch, pitted sclereids and stone cells [Figure 3]b, pitted vessel and stone cells [Figure 3]c, prismatic crystals and brownish colored content [Figure 3]d, and starch grains [Figure 3]e. Whereas Cyperus rotundus Linn. presented with brownish content, cork cells in surface view [Figure 3]f, group of fibers [Figure 3]g, parenchyma cells having brownish content [Figure 3]h, reticulate vessel [Figure 3]i, and starch grains [Figure 3]j. The diagnostic features obtained by powder microscopy were found to be complying with the standards mentioned at respective volumes of API.
Figure 1: Microscopic characters: (a) brownish content; (b) fibers and sclereids; (c) pitted fibers; (d) rosette crystals; (e) sclereids and stone cells; (f) starch grains; (g) group of fibers; (h) pitted stone cells; (i) prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate; (j) spiral vessels

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Figure 2: Microscopic characters: (a) epidermal cells in surface view; (b) pitted sclereids; (c) starch grains; (d) pitted vessel and group of fibers; (e) rosette crystals and brownish colored matter; (f) stone cells and sclereids; (g) group of fibers; (h) pitted sclereids and parenchymas; (i) pitted stone cells; (j) pitted vessel; (k) prismatic crystals; (l) yellowish and brownish colored content; (m) bordered pitted vessel; (n) group of fibers; (o) parenchyma cells having brownish deposition

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Figure 3: Microscopic characters: (a) prismatic crystal; (b) pitted sclereids and stone cells; (c) pitted vessel and stone cells; (d) prismatic crystals and brownish colored content; (e) starch grains; (f) cork cells in surface view; (g) group of fibers; (h) parenchyma cells having brownish content parenchyma cells; (i) reticulate vessel; (j) starch grains

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Table 2: Organoleptic characters of TG

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Physicochemical analysis

TG was analyzed using relevant physicochemical parameters at the pharmaceutical chemistry lab. The observations are presented in [Table 3].
Table 3: Physicochemical parameters

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Preliminary phytochemical analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography

Qualitative tests


Presence of glycosides, flavonoids, and tannins was confirmed through the suitable tests while alkaloids could not be detected in TG [Table 4].
Table 4: Functional groups of TG

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HPTLC

On analyzing under densitometer at 254 nm, the chromatogram showed nine peaks. While at 366 nm, the chromatogram showed seven peaks. When the plate was sprayed with vanillin sulphuric acid followed by heating and then visualized in daylight showed eight spots [Figure 4]a and b, [Figure 5]a-c, and [Table 5].
Figure 4: (a) Densitogram curve of methanol extract of Triphaladi granules at 254 nm; (b) densitogram curve of methanol extract of Triphaladi granules at 366 nm

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Figure 5: HPTLC: (a) 254 nm; (b) 366 nm; (c) after spray

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Table 5: HPTLC

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   Discussion Top


Powder microscopy of TG showed striking characters of all individual seven drugs of TG. This confirms the ingredients present in the finished product and there is no major change in the microscopic structure of the raw drugs during the pharmaceutical processes of preparation of granules. By preliminary qualitative analysis, presence of phytochemicals such as glycosides, flavonoids, [19] and tannins [20] was found.


   Conclusion Top


Preliminary organoleptic features and results of powder microscopy reveal the presence of tannin contents, starch grains, pitted vessel, group of fibers, sclereids, stone cells. etc., This shows TG consist of all the ingredients. In preliminary physico-chemical analysis, water-soluble and alcohol-soluble extract, pH, ash value, and loss on drying were assessed. Preliminary qualitative analysis proves the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, and tannins. As no published information is available on physic-chemical profile of TG, this preliminary information can be used as standard in future.





Authors express their sincere gratitude to Prof. M. S. Bhagel, Hon'ble Director, IPGT and RA, and Dr. Ushanas Bhat, Pharmaceutical Laboratory, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, for their valuable technical inputs and encouragement for this work.

 
   References Top

1.Charaka. Charaka Samhita: Acharya YT, editor. Ayurved Dipika, Commentary. Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Surabharati Prakashana; 2005. p. 31.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Tripathi I, Tripathi DS. Yoga Ratnakar with vaidyaprabha Hindi commentary, Prameha chikitsa/73. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2008. p. 531.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1. Vol 1. 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Department of AYUSH Government of India; 2001. p. 5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1. Vol 1; 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Department of AYUSH Government of India; 2001. p. 27.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1. Vol 1; 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Department of AYUSH Government of India; 2001. p. 45.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1. Vol 1; 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Department of AYUSH Government of India; 2001. p. 74.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1. Vol 1; 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Department of AYUSH Government of India; 2001. p. 119.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1. Vol 2; 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Department of AYUSH Government of India; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1. Vol 3; 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Department of AYUSH Government of India; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Shastri P. Sharangadhara Samhita. 4 th ed. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Orientalia; 2000. p. 206.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Gupta AK. Introduction to pharmaceutics - I. Reprint 2002. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2002. p. 254.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Khandelwal KR. Examination of powdered drugs. In: Khandelwal KR, editor. Practical Pharmacognosy techniques and experiments. 19 th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2008. p. 162-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 2. Vol 1; 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Department of AYUSH Government of India; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 2. Vol 1; 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Department of AYUSH Government of India; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Anonymous. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 1998.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Anonymous. Parameters for qualitative assessment of Ayurveda and Siddha drugs, Part A. New Delhi: CCRAS; 2005. p. 31.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Anonymous. Basics of Analytical and Phytochemical Analysis of Medicinal plants, analytical methods for ASU Single/Compound drugs sponsored by WHO. Chennai: CSMDRI for Ayurveda and Siddha CCRAS, Govt. of India; 2008. p. 11.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Stahl E. Thin layer chromatography a laboratory hand book. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1969. p. 125-41.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Hii CS, Howell SL. Effects of flavonoids on insulin secretion and 45Ca2+handling in rat islets of Langerhans. J Endocrinol 1985;107:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
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20.Liu X, Kim JK, Li Y, Li J, Liu F, Chen X. Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr 2005;135:165-71.  Back to cited text no. 20
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]


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