Login   |  Users Online: 774 Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
   Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts


 
  Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-10  

Critical review on Bhaishajya KaaIa (time of drug administration) in Ayurveda


1 Reader, Department of Basic Principles, Ashwini Ayurvedic Medical College and Research Center, Tumkur, Karnataka, India
2 Reader, Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Ashwini Ayurvedic Medical College and Research Center, Tumkur, Karnataka, India
3 Associate Professor, Department of Basic Principles, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication23-Jul-2013

Correspondence Address:
Ashwini V Junjarwad
Department of Basic Principles, Ashwini Ayurvedic Medical College and Research Center, Tumkur - 572 105, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 24049398

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Bhaishajya Kaala (time of drug administration) is an important principle to be considered while treating a disease. Still hardly a handful of physicians are seen, who account for this. To highlight its imperial role in Chikitsa, there is an immense necessity to analyze this concept, which is the need of the hour. Bhaishajya Kaala is mainly explained in relation with Bala of Roga, Rogi, particular Dosha, Dooshya, and various other factors. The comprehensive understanding of this concept involves so many questions as, why there is a difference in the number of Aushdha Kaala? What is the logic behind their indications as well as contraindications? The present paper focuses on the above points to find out the convincing answers.

Keywords: Bhaishajya Kaala, Bhojana Kaala, Roga, Rogi Bala


How to cite this article:
Junjarwad AV, Savalgi PB, Vyas MK. Critical review on Bhaishajya KaaIa (time of drug administration) in Ayurveda. AYU 2013;34:6-10

How to cite this URL:
Junjarwad AV, Savalgi PB, Vyas MK. Critical review on Bhaishajya KaaIa (time of drug administration) in Ayurveda. AYU [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Dec 8];34:6-10. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2013/34/1/6/115436


   Introduction Top


Ayurveda, the most ancient medical science, has great concern regarding the health as well as the ailments of all the creatures living on the planet earth, was preached in the form of Trisutras, namely, Hetu (causative factor), Linga (signs and symptoms), and Aushadha (treatment). The last part of this trio has been given equal importance as the former two. Aushadha Sutra hides many more concepts in its womb as a part of Chikitsa (Treatment). Charaka says the medicine, which is opposite of Dosha, Dooshya, and Nidan (causative factor) or to all of the three will undoubtedly curb the disorder, irrespective of specific features either mentioned or not mentioned. [1] The above statement is followed by another, which says "while treating a disease success can be achieved only when there is proper combination of Desha (region), Kaala (time), Pramana (dosage), Satmya (wholesomeness), Asatmya (unwholesomeness), Pathya (useful), and Apathya (harmful). [2] Among these seven most important factors, Kaala acquires second position, which reflects the importance of Kaala in Chikitsa. Here again Kaala means:

  1. Shad Aveksha Kaala (Six observatory aspects of time)
  2. Dasha Bheshaja Kaala (Ten types of times for the administration of medicine)



   Shad Aveksha Kaala Top


Consists of Dina, Rogi, Aushadha, Vyadhi, Jeerna Laxana and Ritu. [3]

Dina (Different parts of the day)

It indicates particular part of the day, for example, Vamana Dravya (emetics) is to be given in the early morning, that is, Purvahna.

Rogi (Patient)

After assessing the strength of the patient, time of administration for medicine should be selected. If the patient is having good strength, then medicine can be given in empty stomach early in the morning. If the patient is weak, then medicine should be administered along with wholesome food.

Aushadha

Based on the Aushadha, ten Kaala have been told. They are Bhukthadau (before meals), Madhye (in the middle of the meals), Pratahapaschat (after the morning meals), Sayampashchat (after the evening meals), Muhurmuhu (frequently), Samudga (both before and after meals), Bhakta Samyukta (mixed with food), Grasa (with each morsel), and Grasantara (between two morsels).

Vyadhi
(disease)

Based on the Vyadhi also the Kaala is classified. For example: In Jwara (fever) every 6 th day the medicine has to be changed like Peya (liquids), Kashaya (decoctions), Ksheera (milk preparations), Sarpi (preparations of ghee), Virechana (purgation), respectively, depending on the condition.

Jeerna linga (stage of the digestion of the food)

The Jeerna Lakshanas should be assessed before administering the medicine. Symptoms like hunger, appearance of Vega (natural urges), expulsion of Mala (waste products), clear belching etc., indicate Jeerna Lakshana.

Ritu (nature of the season)

Based on the Ritu, Kaala should be assessed by Chaya (increase of Dosha), Prakopadi (excessive increase of Dosha) Lakshanas told for each Dosha.


   Bhaishajya Kaala Top


Definition

Proper time for administration of Aushadha is known as Bhaishajya Kaala.

'Aushadha Kaalah - Aushadha Sevanasya Sam aye'[4]

Tarka Sangraha tells that everything is dependent on Kaala[5] The same statement can be extended in the context Bhaishajya Kaala too. Kaala is the Nimitta Karana (reason) of all types of Kaarya (action), hence Aushadha employed in a proper Kaala will result in expected kaarya.

Bhaishajya Kaala, Aushadha Kaala, Bhaishajya grahana Kaala, Aushadha Avacharana Kaala, Agada Kaala, and Aushadhavekshana Kaala are the various synonyms used to indicate time of administration.

Number of Bhaishajya Kaala

There are three different opinions regarding the numbers among Acharyas

  1. 10 - Charak, [6] Sushruta, [6] Ashtanga Hridaya. [7]
  2. 11 - Ashtanga Sangraha. [8]
  3. 5 - Sharangadhara. [9]



   Description of Individual Bhaishajya Kaala Top


Niranna (Abhakta)

Abhakta means administration of Aushadha alone. [8]

Abhakta, Ananna, Nirbhukta, Suryodaye Jate are used as synonyms. The first three indicate the Kaala in relation to food while the last indicates Kaala in relation to Dina.

Chakrapani says Abhakta means, it should be before food in the morning [10] Food should be administered only after the medicine is completely digested. Hemadri clarifies that medicine should be administered in the Kapha Udreka Gata Kaala[11] Kapha Kaala is one-third part of the day, and later half of this one-third part is Kapha Udreka Gata Kaala. Indu says it should be after one Yaama after sunrise. [12] The medicine is administered in the empty stomach when the Koshtha is devoid of Kapha Utklesha. Because if there is Kapha Utklesha, the medicine will not come in contact with Agni (digestive fire), and will not be digested properly and effect will be either delayed or reduced. Hence, medicine is administered only after the Kapha Udreka is over.

Indications

The action of the medicine administered during this Kaala is enhanced due to the empty stomach. Hence, the physician should see the strength of disease and patient. If both are strong this Kaala should be selected. With this idea the following indications are told:

  1. Disease and diseased both having good strength.
  2. Pancha Vidha Kashaya Kalpanas (five basic formulations): They are heavy and need strong Agni to digest them.
  3. Lekhanartha (scraping) and Utklishta Kapha Pitta: The Apatarpana is the line of treatment in both the conditions. Abhakta Kaala provides a suitable time for the administration of both.
  4. Kapha Udreka Avastha Gata Kaala. [13]


Contraindications

It is contraindicated in children, aged, etc., who cannot withstand the potency of the medicine, administered in this Kaala. [10] It will kill the person like the weak one is killed by the strong one. Thus the simile indicates if one administered medicine without considering the above fact, will produce complications like Glani and even death. [14]

Pragbhakta

Mode of administration

The medicine is administered just before the intake of food. [12] Prakbhojana, Annadau, Pragbhakta, Bhojanagre, Bhuktadau, Poorvabhaktasya are used synonymously to indicate this Kaala.

Indications

Apana Vata Vikruti Gudagata
(situated in anus) Vata.[15]

Aged, children, Bhiru (panic), Krishangana (emaciated), weak [16]

For strengthening lower part of the body, diseases of lower half of the body, obesity. [17]

Benefits

Medicine will be digested very quickly without hampering the strength of the person. There will be no regurgitation of medicine as it is covered by food. [17] It destroys the Doshas situated in Amashaya (stomach).

Madhya Bhakta

Administration of medicine in between the food is Madhyabhakt. [17] The synonyms Madhye Bhaktam, Madhye, Madhya Bhaktam, Madhya Bhojana give the same meaning.

Mode of administration

Classics have clearly mentioned that medicine should be administered in between food, that is, first person is asked to consume half part of the food. This food initiates the process of digestion. The Pachaka Pitta and Saman Vata are stimulated by the food taken, followed by this medicine is administered, so that it can act over the Samana Vata, in turn Pachaka Pitta. Then again food is consumed, which covers the medicine and prevents regurgitation of the medicine.

Indications

Samana Vata Vikruti , [14] Koshtagata Vyadhis. [16] Paittika Vyadhis. Agni Udeeranartha in Mandagni.

Madhya Bhakta Aushadhi
due to its quality of not spreading (Avisari Bhava) [18] subsides the diseases of Madhya Shareera, that is, the medicine administered during this Kaala acts on Samana Vata. Once this Samana Vata is corrected, Agni or Pachaka starts functioning properly. The Pachaka Pitta nourishes all the Pittas. If Pachaka Pitta is corrected all the other Pittas will also function normally. Hence, it is indicated in Paittika Vyadhis. The main function of the Koshtha is digestion and metabolism. Once the Samana Vata and Pachaka Pitta are functioning normally, the function of Koshtha gets corrected. Hence it is indicated in Koshta Gata Vyadhis.

Pashchatbhakta

Synonyms


Pratah Ashasya, Pashchat, Adhobhaktam, Ante, Adhaha.

Mode of administration


Medicine is administered after food, to subside various diseases related to the upper part of the body, as well as to give strength [19]

This Kaala is divided in two. [14]

  1. Pratah Bhojana Kaala - indicated for Vyana Vata Vikruti
  2. Sayam Bhojana Kaala - indicated for Udaan Vata Vikruti


Indications


  1. Vyana Vata Vikrut.[14]
  2. For strengthening upper part of the body [14]
  3. Diseases of chest, throat, and head.
  4. Diseases of upper half of the body.


Its main indication is Vyana Vata Vikruti. The time Pratah is specifically told because the site of Vyana Vata is Hridaya (heart) and the Hridaya is open during morning. Hence, the medicine administered during morning reaches the Hridaya. It should be administered after food because the Vyana Vata is activated after the formation of rasa so that it can be carried all over the body. Hence, the food is administered first and the medicine is administered later.

Sayampashchat

This comes under Adhobhakta. The mode of administration is defined as the administration of medicine after dinner.

Indication

Udana Vata Vikruti [14]

During night the Hridaya gets closed. The Vyana Vata becomes inactive, which is taken over by Udana Vata. Thus the medicine is administered after dinner.

Udana moves in Nasa, Gala and Urah etc., in the diseases of Jatrurdhwa Vikara this Kaala can be selected.

Antarabhakta

Synonyms


Bhaktayormadhye, Antarabhaktam and Antarbhaktam are used synonymously.

The administration of food in between two meals is called Antarabhakta, [16] means after digestion of food taken in afternoon, Aushadha is administered. Once Aushadha is digested, evening meals is taken. Similar thing is followed in case of night and morning food.

In this Kaala Ahaara and Aushadha Jeerna Lakshana play an important role. The first Antarabhakta is during daytime where as next is one Yama followed by the digestion of evening food as opined by Indu, which is same as that of Nishi (night).

Indications

Hridya, Deepaka (kindling digestive fire), Deeptagni Purush suffering from Vyan Vayu. As it acts over Udana, which is seated in Hridaya, it gives strength to the Manas (mind). [20]

Jejjat includes this Kaala under Madhyabhakta, which is for Samana Vata unlike Vyan Vata as told by others. [21] Chakrapani asserts that Antarabhakta means Aushadha mixed with Anna or mixed with it during Samskara (processing) of Anna (food), but this is considered as Sabhakta according to other Acharyas.

Sabhakta

Sabhaktam
means, administration of Aushadha along with food. The mixing is done either with prepared food or during preparation of food. [22] Bhakta Samyuktam, Sannam, and Samabhaktam are identical to each other.

Indications

Aruchi , [16] children, [23] weak, Stree (ladies), Vriddha, Sukumara (mild),[22] Ksheena. To protect Bala and Sarvaangagata Rogas. [22]

In Mandagni (loss of appetite), Aruchi - food is processed with Aushadha and given. As the Teekshnata, strong odour, bad taste of Aushadha are reduced, it is used for administration in women, children, aged, persons with less strength, and one who hates Aushadha.

Indication for this Kaala is not mentioned for any Dosha, but indicated in Sarvanga (complete body) Roga and Kshata Ksheena (emaciated). Aushadha along with Ahara will be digested and Rasa is formed, which will be circulated all over the body with the help of Vyana Vata[24]

Grasa - Grasantarah

Grasa
means Aushadha mixed along with each bolus of food, [25] also known as Sagras and Grase-Grase.

Grasantara
means administration of Aushadha in between each bolus of food and is known as Kavalantare. [26]

Indications

  1. This is indicated in Prana Vata Dushti[27] and Vajeekaranartha(increasing vigor), Agni Sandeepanartha. [25]
  2. Grasa: can be used where the form of medicine is Churna (powder), Vataka (tablet), Leha (confections).[25]
  3. Grasantara: this is used when one wants to administer the Vamaneeya Dhumapana.


Annapravesh (deglutition) is the function of Prana Vata. [28] The Aushadha administered with each Grasa will come in contact with Prana Vata in Mukha (oral cavity), Kantha (throat), Urah (chest), etc., leading to the continuous contact with Prana and conditions related to that could be easily treated.

Churna should be administered in this Kaala to increase Agni, it may be due to Rukshata (dryness).[25]

Samudga

Samudga
refers to the administration of Aushadha both before and after food. [29]

Samudga word refers to Samputaka, which means a box like structure.

Indications

Hikka Roga (hiccough), Kampa (tremors), Akshepa (convulsions), Urdhva Kayagata Vikaras,[29] Pravisruta (spreaded) Dosha-Urdhwa, and Adha Visruta Dosha[30] When the form of medicine is Pana (liquid), Navana (administered through nostrils), Avaleha (confections). [31]

No specific Dosha is indicated for this Kaala instead some conditions like Kampa, Akshepaka, Hikka are mentioned where Doshas are situated in both Urdhwa (upper) and Adho (lower) Shareera. Aushadha administered in this Kaala will be having its effect on Apana, Vyana as well as on Udana Vata.

Dalhana
stresses on the word 'Peeyate' stating that Aushadha should be in liquid form so that food will be put in a nutshell. [32]

Muhurmuhu

The word Muhurmuhu means again and again, Aushadha is repeatedly taken with or without food. [33]

Indications

Shwasa
(dyspnoea), Kasa (cough). Trishna (thirst), Hikka, Chhardi (vomiting), Visha (poison), Swarabhanga (hoarseness of voice).[33]

This Kaala can be broadly divided in two:

  1. Abhakta Muhurmuhu
  2. Sabhakta Muhurmuhu


The indication of with or without food may chosen by considering Bala of the patient. This Kaala is indicated in Shwasa, Kasa, Trishna, Hikka, Chhardi and Visha where continuous Vegas are produced. Hence Aushadha is administered repeatedly so that it can maintain its effect throughout.

Nishi

Synonyms

Swapnakale
, Ratre

Administration of Aushadha at night is called Nishi.[34]

Indication

Urdhwajatrugata Vikara (diseases above the neck). [25]

Aushadha should be administered at the time of sleep. According to Ayurveda one should go to sleep after the digestion of the evening food. Hence medicine should be administered after the digestion of evening food. Thus this becomes second Antara Bhakta according to Indu, and it is indicated in Urdhwa Jatru Gata Vikaras. Urdhwajatru is the site of Prana Vata. Thus medicine administered in this Kaala acts over Prana Vata.


   Discussion Top


Vagbhat also explained ten Aushadha Kaala including the Nishi. Hemadri commenting on the same called these Kaala as Shamana Aushadha Kaala. In the present paper also, this aspect has been highlighted. The relation between Kaala and Aushadha is well established in our classics by all the Acharyas. This relation has been neglected now a days, specially while administering the medicine. Such negligence may be one of the reasons for not getting the desired effect from the therapy, as the Aushadha Dravya fails to show its complete effect.

Hence to utilize the Aushadha to its optimum level, Bhaishajya Kaalas have been quoted depending on the predominance of the Doshas, seat of the disease, frequency of attack, etc.

The advantages of Bhaishajya Kaala are wide spread, but they are mainly elucidated in relation with Shamana Aushadhi. Hence they are found to be of limited exploit, in case of emergency conditions, Shodhana (purificatory) therapy and medicine administered other than oral route.


   Conclusion Top


Bhaishajya Kaala are the essential tools for administration of Aushadha, negligence may lead to the grave deficit in the treatment. Evaluation of Vaya, Jeernalinga, Ritu, Vyadhi Dooshya, Desha plays a pivotal role in deciding Bhaishajya Kaala. Vata Dosha has given prime importance in the context of Bhaishajya Kaala, though Pitta and Kapha are considered at some places. The order of Kaalas is different in all Samhitas (classical treatises) without showing any logical reasoning behind this. Bhaishajya Kaala can only be used for Shamanaushadhi and cannot be followed in Atyayika Avastha (emergency conditions).

 
   References Top

1.Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Yonivyapat Chikitsa Adhyaya, 30/292. Pandey GS, editor. 8 th edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Samsthan, Varanasi, 2004; 788.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Ibidem. Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Yonivyapat Chikitsa Adhyaya, 30/ 293; 789.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Ibidem. Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Yonivyapat Chikitsa Adhyaya, 30/ 296-304; 789-90.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Gupta Umeshchandra, Vaidyaka Shabda Sindhu, Reprint 4 th edition. Chaukambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 1999; 174.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Annambhatta Tarkasangraha, Vangiya Satkari Sharma, editor. 4 th edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Samsthana, Varanasi, 2003; 186.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Yonivyapat Chikitsa Adhyaya, 30/298, Pandey GS, editor, 8 th edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Samsthan, Varanasi, 2004; 790.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Vagbhata, Ashtanga Hridaya, Sutra Sthana, Doshopakramaniya Adhyaya, 13/38. Paradkar HS, editor, Reprint edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2002; 219.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Uttra Tantra, Swasthopkrama Adhyaya, 64/65. Acharya JT, editor. Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003; 813.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Vagbhata, Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Sthana, Bheshajaavacharniya Adhyaya, 23/13. Sharma SP, editor, 1 st edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 2006; 179.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Sharangadhara, Sharangadhara Samhita, Prathama Khanda, 2/2, Pt. Parashurma Shastri editor, 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2006; 16.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Chakrapanidatta, Commentator, Charak Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Yonivyapat Chikitsa Adhyaya, 30/298. Pandey GS, editor. 8 th edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Samstana, Varanasi, 2004; 792.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Hemadri, Commentator, Ashtanga Hridaya, Sutra Sthana, Doshopakramaniya Adhyaya, 13/38, Paradkar HS, editor, Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2002; 219.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Indu, Commentator, Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Sthana, Bheshajaavacharniya Adhyaya, 23/14, Sharma SP, editor, 1 st edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 2006; 179.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Uttra Tantra, Swasthopkrama Adhyaya, 64/67. Acharya JT, editor. Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003; 813.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Yonivyapat Chikitsa Adhyaya, 30/299. Pandey GS, editor. 8 th edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Samsthan, Varanasi, 2004; 790.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Uttra Tantra, Swasthopkrama Adhyaya, 64/69. Acharya JT, editor. Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003; 813.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Indu, Commentator, Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Sthana, 23/14, Sharma SP, editor, 1 st edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 2006; 180.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Indu, Commentator, Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Sthana, 23/16, Sharma SP, editor, 1 st edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 2006; 180.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Uttra Tantra, Swasthopkrama Adhyaya, 64/72. Acharya JT, editor. Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003; 813.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Uttra Tantra, Swasthopkrama Adhyaya, 64/73. Acharya JT, editor. Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003; 813.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Jejjat, Commentator, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Stana, Yonivyapat Chikitsa Adhyaya, 30/299. Pt. Haridatta Shastri, editor. vol - II, Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi; 1542.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Indu, Commentator, Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Sthana, Bheshajaavacharniya Adhyaya, 23/18, Sharma SP, editor, 1 st edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Series Offi ce, Varanasi, 2006; 180.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Uttra Tantra, Swasthopkrama Adhyaya, 64/75. Acharya JT, editor. Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003; 813.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Vatavyadhi Chikitsa Adhyaya, 28/9. Pandey GS, editor. 8 th edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Samsthan, Varanasi, 2004; 692.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Indu, Commentator, Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Sthana, Bheshajaavacharniya Adhyaya, 23/22. Sharma SP, editor, 1 st edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 2006; 180.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Dalhana, Commentator, Sushruta Samhita, Uttratantra, Swasthopkrama Adhyaya, 64/81. Acharya YT, editor. Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003; 814.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala, Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Yonivyapat Chikitsa Adhyaya, 30/300. Pandey GS, editor. 8 th edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Samsthan, Varanasi, 2004; 790.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Vagbhata, Ashtanga Hridaya, Sutra Sthana, Doshabhediya Adhyaya, 12/5-6. Paradkar HS, editor, Reprint edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2002; 193.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Indu, Commentator, Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Sthana, Bheshajaavacharniya Adhyaya, 23/20. Sharma SP, editor, 1 st edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Series Offi ce, Varanasi, 2006; 180.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Uttra Tantra, Swasthopkrama Adhyaya, 64/77. Acharya JT, editor. Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003; 814.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Vriddha Jivaka, Kahyapa Samhita, Pandit Hemaraj Sharma, editor. 4 th edition. Choukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, 1988; 105.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Dalhana, Commentator, Sushruta Samhita, Uttratantra, Swasthopkrama Adhyaya, 64/76. Acharya YT, editor. Reprint 1 st edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2003; 814.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Indu, Commentator, Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Sthana, Bheshajaavacharniya Adhyaya, 23/21. Sharma SP, editor, 1 st edition. Chaukambha Sanskrit Series Offi ce, Varanasi, 2006; 180.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Vagbhata, Ashtanga Hridaya, Sutra Sthana, Doshabhediya Adhyaya, 12/374. Paradkar HS, editor, Reprint edition. Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2002; 219.  Back to cited text no. 34
    




 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Shad Aveksha ...
    Bhaishajya Ka...
    Description of I...
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3546    
    Printed78    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded961    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal