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PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 274-278  

Pharmacognostical and analytical study of Tulsi-Amla-Yasti Ghrita


1 Reader, Rajib Gandhi Memorial Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Kushdanga, West Bengal, India
2 Professor and Head, Department of Kaya Chikitsa, Institute for Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
3 Professor and Head, Department of Radiotherapy, MP Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
4 Head, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute for Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
5 Ph.D. Scholar, Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Institute for Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication29-Dec-2012

Correspondence Address:
Debdas Datta
Gangpur, P.O.- Joteram, Dist. -Burdwan, West Bengal
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.105251

PMID: 23559803

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   Abstract 

Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita is an Ayurvedic formulation, which is beneficial in the management of the side effects of Head and Neck Malignancies induced by Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy. A pharmacognostical study involving both the macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drugs of Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita and a physicochemical analysis of the finished product were carried out, to evaluate the quality of the formulation. The specific gravity of the formulation was 0.9130 and pH was 3.5. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were carried out after organizing the appropriate solvent system, in which five spots were distinguished in TLC and nine spots in HPTLC. Most of the R f values for the spots observed were identical. The observations could be considered to be the reference standards in future studies.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, high performance thin layer chromatography, radiotherapy, Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita


How to cite this article:
Datta D, Chandola H, Agarwal S K, Shukla VJ, Pandya PN. Pharmacognostical and analytical study of Tulsi-Amla-Yasti Ghrita. AYU 2012;33:274-8

How to cite this URL:
Datta D, Chandola H, Agarwal S K, Shukla VJ, Pandya PN. Pharmacognostical and analytical study of Tulsi-Amla-Yasti Ghrita. AYU [serial online] 2012 [cited 2014 Aug 20];33:274-8. Available from: http://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2012/33/2/274/105251


   Introduction Top


The vital responsibility of herbal medicine in serving the therapeutic requirements of the human populace worldwide has been identified from ancient times to the modern era. However, a key obstacle that has hindered the acceptance of alternative medicines in developed countries is the lack of documentation and rigorous quality control. A need is always felt for the proper documentation of research studies carried out on traditional systems of medicine. Keeping this in mind, it becomes extremely important to develop the standards of plant-based medicines.

For accurate identification, authentication, and standardization of herbal medicines, pharmacognosy is important and necessary. Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita (TAYG) is one of the most potential formulations, with some modification in the previous Anubhuta Yoga, which is claimed to be effective in the management of complications induced by Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy. [1]

Cancer is the most dreaded disease spreading with continuance and increasing in the twenty-first century. It is becoming the most common cause of death in the world. [2] In India, Head and Neck Cancers (HNCA) account for 30-40% of the cancers of all sites. [3] Tobacco- and smoking-related oral cancer accounts for about 33%. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine, has many options in this regard, and thousands of combinations remain unexplored. TAYG is one among them. The formulation taken is an Anubhuta Yoga. The objective of the study is to develop possible quality control parameters of the drug.


   Materials and Methods Top


The dried fruits of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) were collected from the local market of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, and Tulasi (Occimum sanctum Linn.), Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), and Goghrita (Cow ghee) were procured from the local market of Jamnagar, Gujarat. The herbal material was identified for its genuinity in the Pharmacognosy Laboratory of the Institute. The physical impurities were removed from the herbal drugs, and they were dried below 45 ° C, and made into a coarse powder to use for the pharmacognostical study. Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita [Table 1] was prepared as per the classical reference. A physicochemical analysis of the final product was carried out in the Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory of the institute.
Table 1: Formulation composition of Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita

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Macroscopy

The raw drugs and powders were separately studied by organoleptic and morphological characters like Rupa (Color), Rasa (Taste), Gandha (Odor), Sparsha (Touch), and so on.

Microscopy

The powders of the drugs were studied microscopically and the characters were observed after proper mounting and staining with Phloroglucinol and HCl (used for identification of Lignified elements). [4] Photographs of the miocroscopical powder characters were taken using a Canon digital camera attached to a Zeiss microscope, in the Pharmacognosy Laboratory.

Physicochemical parameters and phytochemical analysis

Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita
was subjected to an examination of the physicochemical parameters, to evaluate the possible analytical profile.

Oraganoleptic characters

Oraganoleptic characters like Rupa (Color), Rasa (Taste), Gandha (Odor), and Sparsha (Touch) were observed.

Physicochemical parameters

Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita
was subjected to an examination of the physicochemical parameters like refractive index, specific gravity, pH value, acid value, saponification value, and iodine value. [5]

Thin layer Chromatography

Thin Layer Chromatography and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography [6],[7] were performed for the phase separation of the components of unsaponifiable fraction of TAYG. The spots obtained from both the extracts were examined under ultraviolet light, of wavelengths 254 nm and 366 nm.

• Sample preparation:

Track 1: Methanolic extract of TAYG
Track 2: Unsaponifiable matter of TAYG

• Solvent system:

Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Glacial acetic acid (5:5:1:1)

• Stationary phase:

Silica gel G

• Visualization:

Under long UV (366 nm) and short UV (254 nm)

High performance thin layer Chromatography

The HPTLC study [6],[7] of the unsaponifiable fraction of TAGY was carried out by using the same solvent system of Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Glacial acetic acid (5:5:1:1). After completion of HPTLC; post chromatographic derivation was done with methanolic sulfuric acid.


   Results Top


Rupa (color), Gandha (odor), Rasa (taste), and Sparsha (texture) of the composition of the formulation can be seen in [Table 2].
Table 2: Macroscopic characters

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All the ingredients of TAGY can be seen in [Figure 1], [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. Powder microscopy of Occimum sanctum (Sweta Tulasi) revealed the presence of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate [Figure 4]a, oil globules [Figure 4]b, annular vessels [Figure 4]c, stomata [Figure 4]d, spiral vessels [Figure 4]e, group of lignified fibers [Figure 4]f, a multicellular simple trichome [Figure 4]g, and a unicellular simple trichome [Figure 4]h; whereas, microscopy of the coarse powder of the pericarp of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) showed a prismatic crystal with parenchyma cells [Figure 5]a, starch grains [Figure 5]b, sclereid [Figure 5]c, and a group of lignified fibers [Figure 5]d. The microscopical features seen in the powder of the rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (Yastimadhu) were cork cells [Figure 6]a, simple and compound starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate [Figure 6]b, crystal fibres [Figure 6]c and bordered pitted vessels [Figure 6]d. The diagnostic features observed by powder microscopy were authenticated by comparing the features with the standard references. [8],[9],[10]
Figure 1a: Tulasi leaves
Figure 1b: Tulasi leaf powder


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Figure 2a: Amalaki fruit
Figure 2b: Amalaki fruit powder


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Figure 3a: Yashtimadhu root
Figure 3b: Yashtimadhu powder


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Figure 4:

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Figure 5:

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Figure 6:

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The drug TAGY is semi-solid in form, brownish chocolate in color, nonspecific in taste, with an aromatic odor. The results observed through the physicochemical parameters can be found in [Table 3]. The results of TLC can be found in [Table 4] and [Figure 7]; while the results of HPTLC can be found in [Table 5] and [Figure 8], .
Figure 7: TLC of TAYG

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Figure 8a: HPTLC densitogram at 254nm
Figure 8b: HPTLC densitogram at 366nm


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Table 3: Physicochemical parameters

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Table 4: Results of TLC

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Table 5: Results of HPTLC

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   Discussion Top


The present formulation consisted of three plant ingredients, which were proved to be genuine, by assessing the organoleptic characters and powder microscopy features. Physicochemical parameters were applied for assessing the prepared formulation. The refractive index was 1.4710. The specific gravity of the sample was 0.9130, which was closer to plain Ghrita, for which it was 0.9, showing that the sample was not too dense. The pH of TAGY was found to be 3.5, showing the acidic nature of the drug. The acid value was 4.3968 w/v, indicating the amount of free fatty acid present in the Ghrita. The saponification value was found to be 209.82 w/v. It gave an idea of the molecular weight of an oil/fat, and the oil contained a long chain of fatty acids. The observed iodine value for the sample was 23.04 w/v, which indicated the consumption of the iodine molecules by free fatty acids. TLC showed five spots, when the plate was scanned at 254 nm and 366 nm. The results were the same for both the detection wavelengths, which showed that the components were sensitive to both wavelengths.


   Conclusion Top


The preliminary organoleptic features and the results of powder microscopy revealed the presence of important characters like oil globules, a multicellular glandular trichome, multicellular and unicellular simple trichomes in Tulasi, prismatic crystal with parenchyma cells, and tannin content in Amalaki, and simple and compound starch grains, crystal fibers, and bordered pitted vessels in Yastimadhu. Thin layer chromatography results showed five spots when the plate was scanned at 254 nm and 366 nm. The physicochemical analysis showed specific gravity (0.913), pH (3.5), acid value (4.3968), iodine value (23.04 w/v), and saponification value (209.82 w/v). All the parameters discussed here could be used as identifying tools for the quality assessment of Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita.

 
   References Top

1.Das D, Agarwal SK, Chandola HM. Protective effect of Yastimadhu (Glycerrhiza glbra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies. Ayu 2011;32:196-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
2.Haslett C, Chilvers ER, Hunter JA, Boon NA, editors. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 18 th ed. London: Churchil Livingstone; 1999. p. 1050.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Bhattacharjee A, Chakraborty P, Purkaystha P. Prevalence of head and neck cancers in the north east - an institutional study. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;58:15.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy Techniques and Experiments. 19 th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2008. p. 24-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopiea of India, Part-II. 1 st ed., Vol. 1. New Delhi: The Controller of Publications, Ministry of H and FW, Government of India; 2007. p. 190-201.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Wagener H, Bladt S. Plant drug analysis-A thin layer chromatography atlas. 2 nd ed. Berlin: Springer; 1996. p. 230-1.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Heftmann E. Chromatography-a laboratory handbook of chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. 3 rd ed. Princeton MJ: Van Nostarand; 1975.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Jackson BP, Snowdon DW. Powdered vegetable Drugs. 1 st ed. London: J and A Churchill Ltd. (American Elsevier Publishing Co. Inc. New York); 1968. p. 166-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Tandon N, Sharma M. Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 8. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research; 2010. p. 161-3.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Chauhan M, Pillai AP. Powered Drugs Used in Indian System of Medicine, Vol. 1 - Leaf Drugs. Jamnagar: Gujarat Ayurved University Press; 2005. p. 166-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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